# Nonlinear Mixed Effects Models, Growth Curves, and Autoregressive Linear Mixed Effects Models

• Ikuko Funatogawa
• Takashi Funatogawa
Chapter
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Statistics book series (BRIEFSSTATIST)

## Abstract

In the previous chapters, we discussed autoregressive linear mixed effects models. In this section, we discuss the relationships between the autoregressive linear mixed effects models and nonlinear mixed effects models, growth curves, and differential equations. The autoregressive model shows a profile approaching an asymptote, where the change is proportional to the distance remaining to the asymptote. Autoregressive models in discrete time correspond to monomolecular curves in continuous time. Autoregressive linear mixed effects models correspond to monomolecular curves with random effects in the baseline and asymptote, and special error terms. The autoregressive coefficient is a nonlinear parameter, but all random effects parameters in the model are linear. Therefore, autoregressive linear mixed effects models are nonlinear mixed effects models without nonlinear random effects and have a closed form of likelihood. When there are time-dependent covariates, autoregressive linear mixed effects models are represented by a differential equation and random effects. The monomolecular curve is one of the popular growth curves. We introduce other growth curves, such as the logistic curves and von Bertalanffy curves, and generalizations of growth curves. Re-parameterization is often performed in nonlinear models, and various representations of re-parameterization in monomolecular and other curves are provided herein.

## Keywords

Autoregressive linear mixed effects model Growth curve Longitudinal Monomolecular curve Nonlinear mixed effects model

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