Teacher Education and Culturally Diverse Classrooms

A Comparative Analysis of Japan and Ontario, Canada
  • Nana Kodama
Part of the The World Council of Comparative Education Societies book series (WCCE)


Globalization has strongly impacted societies throughout the world. Indeed, the rise of globalization has created a large population of transnational and migrant families in every part of the world. Affected by this worldwide migration phenomenon, school populations in many countries are also becoming diversified.


Teacher Education Teacher Education Program Professional Development Program Teacher Candidate Foreign Student 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Arakawa, S. (2008). Inclusive Kyouiku Nyumon: Subeteno kodomo no gakushu sanka wo hosho suru gakkou/chiiki zukuri [Inclusive education: Schools and communities for guaranteeing the right of all students to education]. Kyoto: Creates Kamogawa.Google Scholar
  2. Aujla-Bhullar, S. (2011). Deconstructing diversity: Professional development for elementary teachers. Diaspora, Indigenous, Minority Education, 5, 266-276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Banks, J. A. (2007). Educating citizens in a multicultural society (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  4. Banks, J. A. (2008). Teaching strategies for ethnic studies (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
  5. Beynon, J., LaRoque, L., Ilieva, R., & Dagenais, D. (2005). A socio-cultural and critical analysis of educational policies and programs for minority youth in British Columbia. In C. E. James (Ed.), Possibilities and limitations: Multicultural policies and programs in Canada (pp. 108-129). Black Point and Winnipeg: Fernwood Publishing.Google Scholar
  6. Bodur, Y. (2012). Impact of course and fieldwork on multicultural beliefs and attitudes. The Educational Forum, 76, 41-56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brown, E. L. (2004). The relationship of self-concepts to changes in cultural diversity awareness: Implications for urban teacher educators. The Urban Review, 36(2), 119-145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cantalini-Williams, M., & Tessaro, M. L. (2011). Teacher candidates’ perceptions of an international practicum experience in Italian schools: Benefits of a short-term placement with faculty support. Canadian and International Education, 40(3), 45-60. Retrieved from Scholar
  9. Central Council for Education (1996). The Model for Japanese education in the perspective of the twenty-first century. Retrieved from
  10. Cho, C. L. (2010). “Qualifying” as teacher: Immigrant teacher candidates’ counter-stories. Canadian Journal of Educational Administration and Policy, 100, 1-22.Google Scholar
  11. Cochran-Smith, M., Davis, D., & Fries, K. (2004). Multicultural teacher education: Research, practice, and policy. In J. A. Banks & C. A. Banks (Eds.), Handbook of research of multicultural education (2nd ed., pp. 931-975). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  12. Colon-Muniz, A., Brady, J., & SooHoo, S. (2010). What do graduates say about multicultural teacher education? Issues in Teacher Education, 19(1), 85-108.Google Scholar
  13. Department of International Education, Elementary and Secondary Education Bureau of MEXT (2014). Foreign students teaching professional development manual for educators. Retrieved from
  14. Derwing, T. M., & Munro, M. (2007). Canadian policies on immigrant language education. In R. Joshee, & L. Johnson (Eds.), Multicultural education policies in Canada and the United States (pp. 93-106). Vancouver: UBC Press.Google Scholar
  15. Dolik, H. (2012). Growing together: The reality of the inclusive classroom. Professionally Speaking: The Magazine of the Ontario College of Teachers, June, 2012. Retrieved from Scholar
  16. Dolik, H. (2013). Two-year teaching program. Professionally Speaking: The Magazine of the Ontario College of Teachers (December), 43-45.Google Scholar
  17. Education Act, R.S.O. 1990, c. E.2 (1990).Google Scholar
  18. Employment Equity Act, S.C. 1986, c. 31 (Can.) (1986).Google Scholar
  19. ERGO (2012). Are ESL students ≠ special education students?: Equity and inclusive education strategy at risk in Ontario. Retrieved from Scholar
  20. Gay, G. (2000). Culturally responsive teaching: Theory, research, and practice. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  21. Gay, G. (2010). Acting on beliefs in teacher education for cultural diversity. Journal of Teacher Education, 61(1-2), 143-152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ghosh, R., & Abdi, A. A. (2013). Education and the politics of difference: Select Canadian perspectives (2nd ed.). Toronto: Canadian Scholars’ Press.Google Scholar
  23. Gorski, P. (2012). Instructional, institutional, and sociopolitical challenges of teaching multicultural teacher education courses. The Teacher Educator, 47(3), 216-235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gorski, P., Davis, S., & Reiter, A. (2012). Self-efficacy and multicultural teacher education in the U.S.: The factors that influence who feels qualified to be a multicultural teacher educator. Multicultural Perspectives, 14(4), 220-228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Government of Canada (2012). Canadian multiculturalism: An inclusive citizenship. Retrieved from
  26. Hamada, H., & Ushiwata, J. (2012). Kyoushoku heno manabi(1): Gakumonsei to jissensei [Learning to be a professional teacher (1): Academics and practice]. In Y. Iwata & K. Takano (Eds.), Kyoushoku ron [Introduction to teaching profession] (pp.159-180). Tokyo: Gakubunsha.Google Scholar
  27. Hanano, Y. (2010, December 21). Gaikokujin no ko dou oshieru: ninzuu sukunai “Sanzaikou” zouka nihongo kyoushi fuzai [How to work with foreign students]. Asahi Shimbun, p. 39.Google Scholar
  28. Hirata, J. (2012). Canada Ontario shu ni okeru kyouin kanri seisaku no henyou: seiken koutai no impact [Changes of teacher-related policies in the Province of Ontario: From the Liberal government to the PC government]. In S. Ohtsubo, J. Hirata, & H. Fukushima (Eds.), Gakkou kyouin to chiiki shakai [Schools, teachers and local communities] (pp. 55-84). Tokyo: Toshin-do.Google Scholar
  29. Hirata, J., Narushima, M., & Sakamoto, M. (2003). Kodomo wo daiichi ni kangaeyu to Ontario shu no shinhoshushugi teki kyouiku kaikaku [Education in Ontario]. In J. Kobayashi, R. Sekiguchi, K. Namita, Y. Ogawa, & C. Mizoue (Eds.), 21 seiki ni habataku Canada no kyouiku [Education in Canada at the dawn of the 21st century] (pp. 63-92). Tokyo: Toshin-do.Google Scholar
  30. Horii, H. (2010). The conditions and issues of educational administration, finance and management. In Y. Murata & M. Yamaguchi (Eds.), Education in contemporary Japan: System and content (pp. 145-219). Tokyo: Toshin-do.Google Scholar
  31. Hum, D., & Wimpson, W. (2007). Revisiting equity and labour: Immigration, gender, minority status, and income differentials in Canada. In S. P. Hier & B. S. Bolaria (Eds.), Race and racism in 21stcentury Canada: Continuity, complexity, and change (pp.89-109). Peterborough: Broadview Press.Google Scholar
  32. ILO/UNESCO (1966). Recommendation concerning the status of teachers. Retrieved from
  33. Immigration Control and Refugee Recognition Act, Cabinet Order No. 319 of 1951, amended in 1989 (1989).Google Scholar
  34. James, C. (2012). Life at intersection: Community, class and schooling. Halifax & Winnipeg: Fernwood Publishing.Google Scholar
  35. Japan Ministry of Justice. (2012). Sakkon no gaikokujin nyuukoku zairyu no joukyou to shutsu nyukoku kanri seisaku ni tsuite [The recent condition of foreign nationals entering and residing in Japan and the immigration control policy]. Retrieved from
  36. Japan Ministry of Justice. (2014). Heisei 25 nenmatsu genzai ni okeru zairyu gaikokujin suu ni tsuite (kakuteichi) [The number of foreign nationals residing in Japan in December, 2013]. Retrieved from
  37. Jennings, T. (2007). Addressing diversity in US teacher preparation programs: A survey of elementary and secondary programs’ priorities and challenges from across the United States of America. Teaching and Teacher Education, 23, 1258-1271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kehoe, J. W. (1994). Multicultural education vs anti-racist education: The debate in Canada. Social Education, 58(6), 354-58.Google Scholar
  39. Kodama, N. (2001). Kou kyouiku context deno tabunka kyouiku no kanousei: Canada Ontario shu han jinshushugi kyouiku heno shitsuteki tankan no kousatsu wo tegakari toshite [Multicultural education in the context of public education systems: A study of qualitative changes to antiracism education in Ontario]. Journal of International Education, 7, 44-65.Google Scholar
  40. Kodama, N. (2012). Multicultural education component of teacher education in Japan. Proceedings of the 8th biennial conference of the Comparative Education Society of Asia. Bangkok: Faculty of Education, Chulalongkorn University, Thailand.Google Scholar
  41. Law concerning Special Regulations for Educational Public Service Personnel, No. 1 of 1949. (1949).Google Scholar
  42. Manzon, M. (2007). Comparing places. In M. Bray, B. Adamson, & M. Mason (Eds.), Comparative education research: Approaches and methods (pp. 85-121). Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre, The University of Hong Kong, and Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  43. Milnes, T., & Cheng, L. (2008). Teachers’ assessment of ESL students in mainstream classes: Challenges, strategies, and decision-making. TESL Canada Journal, 25(2), 49-65.Google Scholar
  44. Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science & Technology in Japan (MEXT). (2012). Nihongo shidou ga hitsuyou na jidou seito no ukeire joukyou tou ni kansuru chousa (heisei 24 nendo) no kekka nit suite [The result for survey on the state of acceptance of foreign schoolchildren who require Japanese language tuition]. Retrieved from
  45. Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science & Technology in Japan (MEXT). (2014). Shoninsha kenshu jisshi joukyou (heisei 24 nendo) chousa kekka [The result for survey on teacher induction program-year 2012]. Retrieved from
  46. Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science & Technology in Japan (MEXT). (n.d.). Shoninsha kenshu jisshi joukyou chousa kekka (heisei 20 nendo) ni tsuite [The result for survey on teacher induction program-Year 2008]. Retrieved from
  47. Mizoue, C. (2009). Canada no kyouiku [Education in Canada]. In Japanese Association for Canadian Studies (Ed.), Hajimete deau Canada [First steps toward Canadian studies] (pp. 106-115). Tokyo: Yuhikaku.Google Scholar
  48. Morimo, T. (2003). Recognition of different cultures by students of teacher training universities and the problems in developing teachers. The Journal of Pedagogics, 45, 117-125.Google Scholar
  49. Morimo, T. (2007). America ni okeru tabunka kyoushi kyouiku no tenkai to kadai: Nihon no kyoushi kyouiku ni shisa suru mono [The development and problems of multicultural teacher education in the United States: What inspires teacher education in Japan]. Intercultural/Transcultural Education (Bulletin of Intercultural Education Society of Japan), 25, 22-34.Google Scholar
  50. Mujawamariya, D. (2001). Associate teachers facing integration of visible minorities into the teaching profession in francophone Ontario. Canadian Ethnic Studies, 33(2), 78-87.Google Scholar
  51. Mujawamariya, D., & Mahrouse, G. (2004). Multicultural education in Canadian preservice programs: Teacher candidates’ perspectives. The Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 50(4), 336-353.Google Scholar
  52. Mwebi, B. M., & Brigham, S. M. (2009). Preparing North American preservice teachers for global perspectives: An international teaching practicum experience in Africa. The Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 55(3), 414-427.Google Scholar
  53. Niikura, R. (2007). Ibunkakan kyouiku to kyouin kenshu no kadai: Gaikokujin jidou seito wo ukeireru kyoushi no shishitsu koujou wo mezashite [Developing and improving intercultural competence of teachers in school education]. A Bulletin of the Center for Research, Training, and Guidance in Educational Practice, Faculty of Education, Chiba University, 14, 115-120.Google Scholar
  54. OECD. (2010). Educating teachers for diversity: Meeting the challenge. Paris: OECD Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Ontario College of Teachers (OCT). (2007). The ethical standards for the teaching profession/the standards of practice for the teaching profession. Retrieved from
  56. Ontario College of Teachers (OCT). (2009). Additional qualification course guideline inclusive classroom part I. Retrieved from
  57. Ontario College of Teachers (OCT). (2011). Adding up to excellence: 2011 annual report. Retrieved from
  58. Ontario College of Teachers (OCT). (2013). Setting the standard for great teaching: 2013 annual report. Retrieved from
  59. Ontario College of Teachers (OCT) (2014). Additional qualification course guideline: English as a second language, part I, schedule D, teachers’ qualifications regulation. Retrieved from a_second_language_e.pdf
  60. Ontario College of Teachers (OCT). (n.d. a). 2012 Annual report, statistical information. Retrieved from
  61. Ontario College of Teachers (OCT). (n.d. b). Schedule D: Three-session additional qualifications. Retrieved from
  62. Ontario Ministry of Education. (2005). Many Roots/many voices: Supporting English language learners in every classroom-A practical guide for Ontario educators. Toronto: Queen’s Printer for Ontario. Retrieved from Scholar
  63. Ontario Ministry of Education. (2008). Supporting English language learners: A practical guide for Ontario educators grades 1 to 8. Retrieved from
  64. Ontario Ministry of Education. (2009). Realizing the promise of diversity: Ontario’s equity and inclusive education strategy. Retrieved from
  65. Ontario Provincial Advisory Committee. (1987). The development of a policy on race and ethnocultural equity: A report of the provincial advisory committee on race relations. Toronto: Ontario Ministry of Education.Google Scholar
  66. Pasca, R., & Wagner, S. L. (2012). Occupational stress, mental health and satisfaction in the Canadian multicultural workplace. Social Indicators Research, 109(3), 377-393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. People of Education. (2013). Language support. Retrieved from
  68. Ponterotto, J. G., Baluch, S., Greig, T., & Rivera, L. (1998). Development and initial score validation of the teacher multicultural attitude survey. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 55(6), 1002-1016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Quezada, R. L. (2004). Beyond educational tourism: Lessons learned while student teaching abroad. International Education Journal, 5(4), 458-465.Google Scholar
  70. Royal Commission on Learning. (1994). For the love of learning. Retrieved from
  71. Ryan, J., Pollock, K., & Antonelli, F. (2009). Teacher diversity in Canada: Leaky pipelines, bottlenecks, and glass ceilings. Canadian Journal of Education, 32(3), 591-617.Google Scholar
  72. Samuel, T. J., & Karam, A. (2000). Employment equity for visible minorities. In L. Driedger & S. S. Halli (Eds.), Race and racism: Canada’s challenge (pp. 134-149). Montreal & Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press.Google Scholar
  73. Sato, G. (1997). Gaikokujin jidou seito no shido jissen ni kansuru chousa kenkyu [A study on educational practice for foreign students in Japan]. Tokyo: Tokyo Gakugei University, Center for Educations of Children Overseas.Google Scholar
  74. Sato, G. (2012). Gakkou kyouiku ni okeru tabunka kyousei heno torikumi heno kadai: Gaikokujin no kodomo no kyouiku wo megutte [Issues in education for diversity in Japanese schools: On the foreign students’ education in Japan]. Retrieved from Scholar
  75. Segeren, A., & Kutsyuruba, B. (2012). Twenty years and counting: An examination of the development of equity and inclusive education policy in Ontario (1990-2010). Canadian Journal of Educational Administration and Policy, 136, 1-38.Google Scholar
  76. Sleeter, C. (2001). Preparing teachers for culturally diverse schools: Research and the overwhelming presence of whiteness. Journal of Teacher Education, 52(2), 94-106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Soh, K., & Asano, N. (2008, November 30). “Kainin ha sabetsu” genba hanpatsu: Gaikokuseki kyouin “shunin” dame? [The full-time lecturers from foreign nationalities are opposing the discriminative dismissal from the chief position]. Asahi Shimbun, p. 34.Google Scholar
  78. Statistics Canada. (2012). Language, census release topics and dates-Census 2011. Retrieved from
  79. Statistics Canada. (2013). Immigration and ethnocultural diversity in Canada (National Household Survey, 2011). Retrieved from Scholar
  80. Study Panel for the Enhancement of Elementary and Secondary Education of Foreign Students. (2008). Enhancement of education of foreign students. Retrieved from
  81. Teach in Ontario. (n.d.). English as a second language, alternative opportunities, Ontario’s schools. Retrieved from
  82. Toronto Catholic District School Board. (n.d. a). Elementary English language learners. Retrieved from
  83. Toronto Catholic District School Board. (n.d. b). Secondary ELL. Retrieved from
  84. Trent, S. C., Kea, C. D., & Oh, K. (2008). Preparing preservice educators for cultural diversity: How far have we come? Exceptional Children, 74(3), 328-350.Google Scholar
  85. Usui, T. (2007). Gaikokujin jidou seito kyouiku ni kansuru kyouin kenshu no genjou to kadai [The current status and the problems of the teacher training programs for foreign student education]. CRIE Review of International Education, 4, 17-34.Google Scholar
  86. Usui, T. (2011). Gaikokujin jidou seito no shidou ni hituyou na kyouin no chikara to sono keisei katei [Processes to cultivate teachers’ abilities needed for teaching foreign pupils]. Memoirs of Osaka Kyoiku University, Ser. IV Education, Psychology, Special Support Education & Physical Culture, 59(2), 73-91.Google Scholar
  87. Webster, N. L., & Valeo, A. (2011). Teacher preparedness for a changing demographic of language learners. TESL Canada Journal, 28(2), 105-128.Google Scholar
  88. Yaosaka, O. (2005). America no kyouin yousei [Teacher education in the United States]. In Japan Association of Universities of Education (Ed.), Sekai no kyouin yousei II: Oubei Oceania hen [Teacher education of the world: Europe, America & Oceania] (pp. 2-22). Tokyo: Gakubunsha.Google Scholar
  89. Yau, M., & O’Reilly, J. (2007). 2006 student census, grades 7-12: System overview. Retrieved from Scholar
  90. York University (2012). Bachelor of education, concurrent program. Toronto: York University.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Sense Publishers 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nana Kodama
    • 1
  1. 1.Shiga University InternationalShiga UniversityJapan

Personalised recommendations