Advertisement

Connections to Support Learning About Science

  • Derek Hodson
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter discusses the need for greater levels of scientific literacy in contemporary society. It identifies three major curriculum thrusts that collectively inform scientific literacy – learning science, learning about science, and doing science – with a principal focus on learning about science, often referred to as nature of science (NoS). Particular emphasis is given to the importance of the language of science, the values, norms and traditions of scientists, and the reality of contemporary practice. The remainder of the chapter discusses direct and indirect connections with scientists and the impact of these on developing understanding about science. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the possibilities and pitfalls of such connections.

Keywords

Scientific Knowledge West Nile Virus Scientific Practice Vested Interest Participatory Action Research 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Allchin D. Values in science: An educational perspective. Science and Education. 1999;8:1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) (1989). Science for all Americans. A Project 2061 report on literacy goals in science, mathematics, and technology. Washington, DC: AAAS.Google Scholar
  3. American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). Benchmarks for scientific literacy. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1993.Google Scholar
  4. Angell M. The truth about the drug companies: How they deceive us and what to do about it. New York: Random House; 2004.Google Scholar
  5. Argyeman J. Action, experience, behaviour and technology: Why it's just not the same? In: Reid A, Scott W, editors. Researching education and the environment: Retrospect and prospect. London: Routledge; 2008. p. 267–276.Google Scholar
  6. Bäckstrand K. Civic science for sustainability: reframing the role of experts, policy-makers and citizerns in environmental governance. Global Environmental Politics. 2003;5(4):24–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barab SA, Hay KE. Doing science at the elbows of experts: Issues related to the science apprenticeship camp. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. 2001;38:70–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barad K. Reconceiving scientific literacy as agential literacy. In: Reid R, Traweek S, editors. Doing science + culture. New York: Routledge; 2000. p. 221–258.Google Scholar
  9. Barber B. Science and the social order. New York: Collier; 1962.Google Scholar
  10. Bauer HH. Scientific literacy and the myth of the scientific method. Chicago, IL: University of Illinois Press; 1992.Google Scholar
  11. Bencze JL. Private profit, science, and science education: Critical problems and possibilities for action. Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology Education. 2008;8(4):297–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bencze JL, Alsop S, Bowen GM. Student-teachers' inquiry-based actions to address socioscientific issues. Journal of Activist Science & Technology Education. 2009;1(2):78–112.Google Scholar
  13. Bloor D. Popper's mystification of objective knowledge. Science Studies. 1974;4:65–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Born M. Experiment and theory in physics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1934.Google Scholar
  15. Brem SK, Russell J, Weems L. Science on the web: Student evaluations of scientific arguments. Discourse Processes. 2001;32(2&3):191–213.Google Scholar
  16. Brush S. Should the history of science be rated X? Science. 1974;183(4130):1164–1172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Burbules N, Callister T. Watch IT: The risks and promises of information technology. Boulder, CO: Westview Press; 2000.Google Scholar
  18. Callon M. The role of lay people in the production and dissemination of scientific knowledge. Science, Technology and Society. 1999;4(1):81–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Callon, M., Lascoumes, P. & Barthe, Y. (2009). Acting in an uncertain world: An essay on technical democracy. Trans: G. Burchall. Boston, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  20. Carter L. Globalization and science education: The implications of science in the new economy. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. 2008;45(5):617–633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Collins HM, Evans R. The third wave of science studies: Studies of expertise and experience. Social Studies of Science. 2002;32:235–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Council of Ministers of Education, Canada (1997). Common framework of science learning outcomes. Toronto: CMEC Secretariat.Google Scholar
  23. Crasnow S. Feminist philosophy of science: 'Standpoint' and knowledge. Science & Education. 2008;17(10):1089–1110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Einstein, E. (1933). On the method of theoretical physics. Herbert Spencer lecture, Oxford, June 10. Reprinted in IPhilosophy of Science, 1934, 1(2), 163-169.Google Scholar
  25. Falk JH. Public understanding of science: Where and why people learn science. Garden Grove, CA, April: Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the National Association for Research in Science Teachjing; 2009.Google Scholar
  26. Friedman SM, Dunwoody S, Rogers CL, editors. Communicating Uncertainty). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 1999.Google Scholar
  27. Fujimura JH. Crafting science: Standardized packages, boundary objects, and 'translation'. In: Pickering A, editor. Science as practice and culture. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press; 1992. p. 168–211.Google Scholar
  28. Funcowicz SO, Ravetz J. Science for the post-normal age. Futures. 1993;25:739–755.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Giere RN. Explaining science: A cognitive approach. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press; 1988.Google Scholar
  30. Gregory J, Miller S. Science in public. Cambridge, MA: Perseus; 1998.Google Scholar
  31. Hagstrom WO. The scientific community. London: Basic Books; 1965.Google Scholar
  32. Harding S. Whose science? Whose knowledge? Thinking from women's lives. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press; 1991.Google Scholar
  33. Ho M-W. The unholy alliance. TheEcologist. 1997;27(4):152–158.Google Scholar
  34. Hodson D. A critical look at practical work in school science. School Science Review. 1990;71:33–40.Google Scholar
  35. Hodson D. Philosophic stance of secondary school science teachers, curriculum experiences, and children's understanding of science: Some preliminary findings. Interchange. 1993;24(1&2):41–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hodson D. Teaching and learning science: Towards a personalized approach. Buckingham: Open University Press; 1998a.Google Scholar
  37. Hodson D. Science fiction: The continuing misrepresentation of science in the school curriculum. Curriculum Studies. 1998b;6(2):191–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hodson D. Teaching and learning about science: Language, theories, methods, history, traditions and values. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers; 2009.Google Scholar
  39. Hodson D. Looking to the future: Building a curriculum for social activism. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers; 2011.Google Scholar
  40. Hogan K. A sociocultural analysis of school and community settings as sites for developing environmental practitioners. Environmental Education Research. 2002;8(4):413–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Jacob F. The statue within: An autobiography. New York: Basic Books; 1988.Google Scholar
  42. Jensen E. The dao of human cloning: Utopian/dystopian hype in the British press and popular films. Public Understanding of Science. 2008;17:123–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Knorr-Cetina KD. The manufacture of knowledge: An essay on the constructivist and contextual nature of science. Oxford: Pergamon Press; 1981.Google Scholar
  44. Knorr-Cetina K. Laboratory studies: The cultural approach to the study of science. In: Jasanoff S, Markle G, Peterson J, Pinch T, editors. Handbook of science and technology studies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage; 1995. p. 140–166.Google Scholar
  45. Kourany J. A philosophy of science for the twenty-first century. Philosophy of Science. 2003;70(1):1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Latour B. Science in action: How to follow scientists and engineers through society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; 1987.Google Scholar
  47. Lave J. Cognition in practice: Mind, mathematics and culture in everyday life. New York: Cambridge University Press; 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lave J. Situated learning in communities of practice. In: Resnick LB, Devine JM, Teasley SD, editors. Perspectives on socially shared cognition. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; 1991. p. 63–82.Google Scholar
  49. Lave J, Wenger E. Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1991.Google Scholar
  50. Liakopoulos M. Pandora's box or pabacea? Using mnetaphors to create the public representations of biotechnology. Public Understanding of Science. 2002;11:5–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Longino HE. Science as social knowledge: Values and objectivity in scientific inquiry. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press; 1990.Google Scholar
  52. Longino H. Feminist epistemology as a local epistemology. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society supplementary volume. 1997;71(1):19–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Loving CC. From the summit of truth to its slippery slopes: science education's journey through positivist-postmodern territory. American Educational Research Journal. 1997;34(3):421–452.Google Scholar
  54. Martin B. Suppressing research data: Methods, context, accountability, and responses. Acoountability in Research. 1999;6(4):333–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Medawar, P. B. (1963). Is the scientific paper a fraud? The Listener, Sept 12th, 377-378.Google Scholar
  56. Merton RK. The sociology of science: Theoretical and empirical investigations. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press; 1973.Google Scholar
  57. Mirowski P, Sent E-M. The commercialization of science and the response of STS. In: Hackett EJ, Amsterdamska O, Lynch M, Wajcman J, editors. The handbook of science and technology studies. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press; 2008. p. 635–689.Google Scholar
  58. Mitroff II. The subjective side of science: A philosophical inquiry into the psychology of the Apollo moon scientists. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 1974.Google Scholar
  59. Mulkay M. Rhetorics of hope and fear in the great embryo debate. Social studies of Science. 1993;23:721–742.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Nadeau R, Désautels J. Epistemology and the teaching of science. Ottawa: Science Council of Canada; 1984.Google Scholar
  61. National Science Board. Science and engineering indicators — 1998. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation; 1998.Google Scholar
  62. Nelkin D. Selling science: How the press covers science and technology. New York: Freeman; 1987.Google Scholar
  63. Office of Science and Technology and the Wellcome Trust. Science and the public: A review of science communication and public attitudes toward science in britain. Public Understanding of Science. 2001;10(3):315–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Postman N, Weingartner C. Teaching as a subversive activity. London: Penguin/Pitman; 1971.Google Scholar
  65. Rose H. Science wars: My enemy's enemy is - only perhaps - my friend. In: Levinson R, Thomas J, editors. Science today: Problem or crisis? London: Routledge; 1997. p. 51–64.Google Scholar
  66. Rowland FS. President's lecture: The need for scientific communication with the public. Science. 1993;260:1571–1576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Royal Society, The (2004). Science in society report. London: Royal Society.Google Scholar
  68. Scherz Z, Oren M. How to change students' images of science and technology. Science Education. 2006;90(6):965–985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Select Committee on Science and Technology, House of Lords (2000). Science and society. 3rd Report, Session 1999-2000. London: HMSO.Google Scholar
  70. Shen BSP. Scientific literacy and the public understanding of science. In: Day SB, editor. The communication of scientific information. Basel: Karger; 1975. p. 44–52.Google Scholar
  71. Suchting WA. The nature of scientific thought. Science & Education. 1995;4:1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. UNESCO. International forum on scientific and technological literacy for all. Final Report. Paris: UNESCO; 1993.Google Scholar
  73. van Dijck J. Imagenation: popular images of genetics. New York: New York University Press; 1998.Google Scholar
  74. Varma, R. (2000). Changing research cultures in U.S. industry. Science, Technology & Human Values, 25(4), 395-416.Google Scholar
  75. Wallace RM, Kupperman J, Krajcik J, Soloway E. Science on the web: Students on-line in a sixth-grade classroom. Journal of the Learning Sciences. 2000;9:75–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Weigold MF. Communicating science: A review of the literature. Science Communication. 2001;23(2):164–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Wenger E. Communities of practice: Learning, meaning and identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1998.Google Scholar
  78. Wong SL, Hodson D. From the horse's mouth: What scientists say about scientific investigation and scientific knowledge. Science Education. 2009;93(1):109–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Wong SL, Hodson D. More from the horse's mouth: What scientists say about science as a social practice. International Journal of Science Education. 2010;32(11):1431–1463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Young RM. Racist society, racist science. In: Gill D, Levidow L, editors. Anti-racist science teaching. London: Free Association Books; 1987. p. 16–42.Google Scholar
  81. Ziman J. Real science: What it is, and what it means. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2000.Google Scholar
  82. Zimmerman C, Bisanz GL, Bisanz J, Klein JS, Klein P. Science at the supermarket: A comparison of what appears in the popular press, experts' advice to readers, and what students want to know. Public Understanding of Science. 2001;10(1):37–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Sense Publishers 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Derek Hodson
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of EducationThe University of AucklandNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations