Development of Policy and Strategy of the Nanomaterials for Environmental Safety/Security by Radioactive/Nuclear Agents at Critical Infrastructure Facilities in Albania
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Albania has not a Research Reactor, Nuclear Power Plant, but use radioactive/nuclear materials and sources of the Ist–Vth category according their classification. Albanian institutions, Institute of Nuclear Physics (INP) and Radiation Protection Commission (RPC) have established a system of regulations and guidance to arrange the preparedness for response on-site area for practices with radioactive/nuclear that could necessitate intervention in emergency situation (Treatment of liquid R/W contains 226Ra, 90Sr, 238Pu, 137Cs isotopes at the Radiochemistry Department. INP, Technical Report, Tirana, 1998). The safety/security of risk assessment in facilities that utilize radioactive/nuclear material was performed considering its impact in environment, workers and public. A national legal framework was established providing among others objectives based in internationally agreed principles and national developments of policies/strategy for nanomaterials for environment safety/security by radioactive/nuclear agents at critical infrastructure facilities in Albania (Vaseashta A, Dimova-Malinovska D, Marshall J Nanostructure and advanced materials. Springer, Dordrech, 2005). Since 1998, a centralized storage facility exists for waste management and it was situated within IANP territory together with radiopharmaceutical Lab. Last decade substantial progress has been made in improving safety/security of radioactive/nuclear material worldwide, as well as in Albania. Al-Qa’ida and associated extremist groups have a wide variety of potential agents and delivery means to choose from for chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear attacks. Terrorism groups continuously expressed interest in unleashing radiological terrorism by building and using radiological dispersal devices, known as “dirty bomb”. Materials, such as: commercial radioactive sources or enriched uranium/plutonium could fuel as crude nuclear material at such device. (Counter terrorism challenges regarding the process of critical infrastructure protection, 2011) Radioactive nuclear wastes generated from nuclear facilities or by radiological terrorism attack should be converted in stable forms, to be stored, disposed in safety/secure manner, in order to have as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) environmental impact. Radiochemistry Division in institute has treated Low Level Liquid Waste generated by its Labs that contain 226Ra, 238Pu, 90Sr, 137Cs isotopes, using nanomaterial as absorber agents like: korthpule-kaolin, Al2O3x2SiO2x2H2O clay, and Tirana Factory Bricks clay, to adsorb above ions. We performed studies in Lab scale to decrease the activity/concentration of wastes, helping the precipitation of radioactive products on PO3−3, OH− ions form, adding sorption nanoagent such as: activated coal, metal powder mixed with different types of clay. Results shown, that montmorilonity Al2[(OH)2Si14O10]xnH2O is few effective as kaolin, which has ion-exchange capacity lower as the first clays used in our Lab, and its ion-exchange velocity was higher. The radioactivity of Low Level Liquid Waste was decreased in considerably using only clays, but this method request large amount of kaolin, increasing the precipitate volume. The experiments repeated using different sorption masses, temperatures, and time (min) of the clays, to absorb 226Ra, 238Pu, 90Sr and 137Cs. The results shown different absorption coefficients for decontamination of LLLW amounts reducing in considerable manner their volume (Chemical treatment of Radioactive /Waste, IAEA, technical report series No. 89, Vienna, 1968; Chemical precipitation processes for treatment of aqueous Radioactive /Waste, IAEA, technical report series No. 337, Vienna, 1992; Handling and treatment of radioactive aqueous Radioactive /Waste, IAEA, TEC/DOC–654, Vienna, 1992).
KeywordsRadioactive nuclear material Centralized store facility Radiopharmaceutical lab Ion-exchange material Absorber agent etc.
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