Methods of Protection of Soft Targets in Urban Area

  • Lucia FiguliEmail author
  • Vladimír Kavický
Conference paper
Part of the NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security book series (NAPSC)


The paper shortly presents the possibilities of soft targets protection using technical measures against the blast wave creating in explosion in terrorist attacks. Technical can be based on two principles: measures ensuring the reduction of the blast load increasing the perimeter using so called stand-off distance, i.e. to increase the distance between the protected asses and source of explosive and in that way to decrease the pressure affected the asses. Or if it is not possible, to increase the blast resistance using so called retrofit technique.


Protection Soft targets Blast wave Stand – Off distances Physical barriers Physical protection 


  1. 1.
    Lovecek T, Velas A, Kampova K, Maris L, Mozer V (2013) Cumulative probability of detecting an intruder by alarm systems. In: International carnahan conference on security technology proceedingsGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
  3. 3.
  4. 4.
    Dusenberry DO (2010) Handbook for blast-resistant design of buildings. Wiley, HobokenCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Figuli L, Štaffenová D (2017) Practical aspect of methods used for blast protection. In: Key engineering materials, vol 755. Trans Tech Publications, Durnten-Zurich, pp 139–146Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zvakova Z, Kavický V (2016) Resistance of selected elements of object protection against the blast effect of home-made ANFO explosive. In: Požární ochrana 2016 sborník přednášek XXV. ročníku mezinárodní konference, pp 498–500Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Figuli L, Zvaková Z, Kavický V, Jangl Š, Vandlíčková M (2016) Effects of well – known forms of improvised explosive devices using home – made ANFO explosives. Sci Mil 11(1):34–39Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Talbot J, Jakeman M (2011) Security risk management body of knowledge. Wiley, New York, pp 72–73Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Buildings and infrastructure protection series reference manual to mitigate potential terrorist attacks against buildings (2011) FEMA-426/BIPS-06/October 2011Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Trajkovski J, Ambrož M, Kunc R (2018) The importance of friction coefficient between vehicle tyres and concrete safety barrier to vehicle rollover – FE analysis study. Stroj Vestn-J Mech E 12(64):753–762Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Štoller J, Zezulová E (2017) The application of fibers reinforced concrete for protective shelter from auxiliary material. In: Key engineering materials, vol 755. Trans Tech Publications, Pfaffikon, pp 374–381Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Štoller J, Dvořák P (2017) Field tests of cementitious composites suitable for protective structures and critical infrastructure. In: Key engineering materials, vol 722. Trans Tech Publications, Pfaffikon, pp 3–11Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Štoller J, Dvořák P (2015) Field Tests of high performance fiber reinforced concrete slabs: impact of contact and distant explosions. In: ICMT 2015 – international conference on military technologiesGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zvaková Z, Jangl Š (2017) Blast resistance of selected barriers. In: Key engineering materials, vol 755. Trans Tech Publications, Pfaffikon, pp 112–120Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Leitner B (2014) Fatigue damage analysis and fatigue life prediction of lorry frame under random excitation. In: Transport means – proceedings of the international conference, pp 9–14Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Leitner B (2014) The procedure of fatigue damage estimation for mechanical structures under service loading. In: Transport means – proceedings of the international conference, pp 9–14Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Luskova M, Dvorak Z, Leitner B (2015) Impact of extreme weather events on land transport infrastructure. In: Transport means – proceedings of the international conference 2015-January, pp 306–309Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bujňáková P, Moravčik M (2010) Experimental and numerical analysis of prestressed HPC girders for bridges. In: Concrete under severe conditions: environment and loading – proceedings of the 6th international conference on concrete under severe conditions, CONSEC’10, vol 2, pp 1667–1673Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Moravcik M, Bujnakova P (2010) Testing and numerical analysis of precast prestressed girders for highway bridges. In: 3rd International fib congress and exhibition, incorporating the PCI annual convention and bridge conference: think globally, build locally, proceedingsGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Trajkovski J, Kunc R, Prebil I (2017) Blast response of centrally and eccentrically loaded flat-, U-, and V-shaped armored plates: comparative study. Shock Waves 27:583–591. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Trajkovski J, Kunc R, Prebil I (2017) Parametric analysis study of blast loaded Armour V-plates. Int J Protect Struct 8:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lantz L et al (2016) Blast protection of unreinforced masonry walls: a state-of-the-art review. Adv Civil Eng 2016:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
  24. 24.
    Balázs DA, Nyikes Z, Kovács T (2017) Building protection with composite materials application. Key Eng Mater 755:286–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kovács T, Nyikes Z, Figuli L (2018) Testing of high energy absorbing materials for blast protection. Acta Mater Transylvanica 1/2:33–36Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Keen WA, Wagner PC (1992) Mitigation of confined explosion effects by placing water in proximity of explosives. In: ADA261116, volume IV. Minutes of the twenty-fifth explosives safety seminar held in Anaheim.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Security EngineeringUniversity of ŽilinaŽilinaSlovakia
  2. 2.Ministry of DefenceBratislavaSlovakia

Personalised recommendations