Failed Prophecies

  • Leigh T. I. Penman


This chapter is devoted to the aftermath of the widespread disappointment of prophecies and expectations for the year 1623. It includes a consideration of the later history of optimistic expectations within Lutheran confessional culture, and also points to the epochal shift that the failures of 1623 caused, not only within Lutheranism, but also within Calvinist eschatological scenarios. These disappointments, together with the efforts of doctrinal opponents of Lutheranism, created a turn toward a more personal eschatology within Lutheranism that rubbed shoulders with soteriology.


Prophecy Theology Lutheranism Prophets Cognitive dissonance 

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leigh T. I. Penman
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Advanced Studies in the HumanitiesUniversity of QueenslandSt. LuciaAustralia

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