The Three Mirrors

  • Leigh T. I. Penman


This chapter identifies the sixteenth-century sources and backgrounds to Lutheran interest in optimistic apocalyptic expectations. It demonstrates the decisive impact of Paracelsian and non-Lutheran theological and religious traditions upon the confessional culture, which resulted in something of a native tradition of apocalyptic optimism. The implications of this tradition and its appeal were rediscovered during the search for insight into the End Times during a series of interlocking crises in the final decades of the sixteenth century.


Paracelsus Chronology Apocalypticism Millenarianism Astronomy 

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© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leigh T. I. Penman
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Advanced Studies in the HumanitiesUniversity of QueenslandSt. LuciaAustralia

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