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Natural Products from Sponges

  • Bing-Nan Han
  • Li-Li Hong
  • Bin-Bin Gu
  • Yang-Ting Sun
  • Jie Wang
  • Jin-Tang Liu
  • Hou-Wen Lin
Chapter

Abstract

The sponge is one of the oldest multicellular invertebrates in the world. Marine sponges represent one of the extant metazoans of 700–800 million years. They are classified in four major classes: Calcarea, Demospongiae, Hexactinellida, and Homoscleromorpha. Among them, three genera, namely, Haliclona, Petrosia, and Discodemia have been identified to be the richest source of biologically active compounds. So far, 15,000 species have been described, and among them, more than 6000 species are found in marine and freshwater systems throughout tropical, temperate, and polar regions. More than 5000 different compounds have been isolated and structurally characterized to date, contributing to about 30% of all marine natural products. The chemical diversity of sponge products is high with compounds classified as alkaloids, terpenoids, peptides, polyketides, steroids, and macrolides, which integrate a wide range of biological activities, including antibacterial, anticancer, antifungal, anti-HIV, anti-inflammatory, and antimalarial. There is an open debate whether all natural products isolated from sponges are produced by sponges or are in fact derived from microorganisms that are inhaled though filter-feeding or that live within the sponges. Apart from their origin and chemoecological functions, sponge-derived metabolites are also of considerable interest in drug development. Therefore, development of recombinant microorganisms engineered for efficient production of sponge-derived products is a promising strategy that deserves further attention in future investigations in order to address the limitations regarding sustainable supply of marine drugs.

Keywords

Sponge Sponge holobiont Natural products Alkaloids Peptides Polyketides Macrolides Terpenoids Steroids Bioactivity 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bing-Nan Han
    • 1
  • Li-Li Hong
    • 1
  • Bin-Bin Gu
    • 1
  • Yang-Ting Sun
    • 1
  • Jie Wang
    • 1
  • Jin-Tang Liu
    • 1
  • Hou-Wen Lin
    • 1
  1. 1.Marine Drugs Research Center, Department of Pharmacy, State Key Laboratory of Oncogenes and Related Genes, Ren Ji Hospital, School of MedicineShanghai Jiao Tong UniversityShanghaiPeople’s Republic of China

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