Antiviral Therapy for AECHB and Severe Hepatitis B (Liver Failure)

  • Qin Ning
  • Ting Wu
  • Hai-Bin Su
  • Ke Ma
  • Jun-Ying Qi
  • Ming Ni
  • Di Wu


This chapter describes the principles of antiviral therapy, treatment strategies, medications and recommendations for AECHB, HBV-ACLF, HBV-related liver cirrhosis, HBV-related HCC, and liver transplantation.
  1. 1.

    Severe exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B is closely related to continuous HBV replication. Therefore, inhibiting HBV replication to reduce viral load may block disease progression and improve the quality of life of these patients. ETV or TDF has been recommend first-line drug for the treatment of AECHB.

  2. 2.

    A hyperactive immune response due to continuous HBV replication is the main mechanism for development of severe hepatitis B. In addition to comprehensive treatment, early administration of potent nucleoside analogs can rapidly reduce HBV DNA concentration, relieve immune injury induced by HBV, and reduce liver inflammation and patient mortality. Antiviral agents have become important in the treatment of severe exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B.

  3. 3.

    Long-term antiviral treatment with nucleoside analogs can delay or reverse the progress of liver cirrhosis. Virologic response, viral resistance and adverse drug reactions should be closely monitored during treatment. The treatment should be optimized for maximum effect based on each patient’s responses.

  4. 4.

    Effective antiviral therapy can suppress HBV replication and reduce the incidence of HBV-related HCC. Patients with HBV-related HCC should receive individualized and optimal multidisciplinary comprehensive treatment. Anti-viral drugs with high efficacy, low resistance and low adverse drug reactions should be selected to improve the patient’s quality of life and prolong survival time.

  5. 5.

    Methods to prevent HBV reinfection after liver transplantation include passive immunization (HBIG), antiviral treatment (nucleoside analogs) and active immunization (hepatitis B vaccine).

  6. 6.

    Clinical trials involving sequential combination therapy with NUC and Peg-IFN have shown statistically significant decline in HBsAg levels on treatment and high rates of sustained post-treatment serologic response. Combination therapy with novel DAA and immunotherapeutic approach may hold promise to overcome both cccDNA persistence and immune escape, representing a critical step towards HBV cure.



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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. and Huazhong University of Science and Technology Press 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Qin Ning
    • 1
  • Ting Wu
    • 1
  • Hai-Bin Su
    • 2
  • Ke Ma
    • 1
  • Jun-Ying Qi
    • 1
  • Ming Ni
    • 1
  • Di Wu
    • 1
  1. 1.Tongji Hospital of Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and TechnologyWuhanChina
  2. 2.Beijing 302 HospitalBeijingChina

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