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Treatment of AECHB and Severe Hepatitis (Liver Failure)

  • Yu-Ming Wang
  • Ke Li
  • Xiao-Guang Dou
  • Han Bai
  • Xi-Ping Zhao
  • Xiong Ma
  • Lan-Juan LiEmail author
  • Zhi-Shui Chen
  • Yuan-Cheng Huang
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter describes the general treatment and immune principles and internal management for AECHB and HBV ACLF, including ICU monitoring, general supportive medications/nutrition/nursing, immune therapy, artificial liver supportive systems, hepatocyte/stem cell, and liver transplant, management for special populations, frequently clinical complications and the utilization of Chinese traditional medicines.
  1. 1.

    Early clinical indicators of severe hepatitis B include acratia, gastrointestinal symptoms, a daily increase in serum bilirubin >1 mg/dL, toxic intestinal paralysis, bleeding tendency and mild mind anomaly or character change, and the presence of other diseases inducing severe hepatitis. Laboratory indicators include T-Bil, PTA, cholinesterase, pre-albumin and albumin. The roles of immune indicators (such as IL-6, TNF-α, and fgl2), gene polymorphisms, HBV genotypes, and gene mutations as early clinical indicators.

     
  2. 2.

    Intensive Care Unit monitor patients with severe hepatitis include intracranial pressure, infection, blood dynamics, respiratory function, renal function, blood coagulation function, nutritional status and blood purification process. Nursing care should not only include routine care, but psychological and special care (complications).

     
  3. 3.

    Nutrition support and nursing care should be maintained throughout treatment for severe hepatitis. Common methods of evaluating nutritional status include direct human body measurement, creatinine height index (CHI) and subject global assessment of nutrition (SGA). Malnourished patients should receive enteral or parenteral nutrition support.

     
  4. 4.

    Immune therapies for severe hepatitis include promoting hepatocyte regeneration (e.g. with glucagon, hepatocyte growth factor and prostaglandin E1), glucocorticoid suppressive therapy, and targeting molecular blocking. Corticosteroid treatment should be early and sufficient, and adverse drug reactions monitored. Treatments currently being investigated are those targeting Toll-like receptors, NK cell/NK cell receptors, macrophage/immune coagulation system, CTLA-4/PD-1 and stem cell transplantation.

     
  5. 5.

    In addition to conventional drugs and radioiodine, corticosteroids and artificial liver treatment can also be considered for severe hepatitis patients with hyperthyreosis. Patients with gestational severe hepatitis require preventive therapy for fetal growth restriction, and it is necessary to choose the timing and method of fetal delivery. For patients with both diabetes and severe hepatitis, insulin is preferred to oral antidiabetic agents to control blood glucose concentration. Liver toxicity of corticosteroids and immune suppressors should be monitored during treatment for severe hepatitis in patients with connective tissue diseases including SLE, RA and sicca syndrome. Patient with connective tissue diseases should preferably be started after the antiviral treatment with nucleos(t)ide analogues.

     
  6. 6.

    An artificial liver can improve patients’ liver function; remove endotoxins, blood ammonia and other toxins; correct amino acid metabolism and coagulation disorders; and reverse internal environment imbalances. Non-bioartificial livers are suitable for patients with early and middle stage severe hepatitis; for late-stage patients waiting for liver transplantation; and for transplanted patients with rejection reaction or transplant failure. The type of artificial liver should be determined by each patient’s condition and previous treatment purpose, and patients should be closely monitored for adverse reactions and complications. Bio- and hybrid artificial livers are still under development.

     
  7. 7.

    MELD score is the international standard for choosing liver transplantation. Surgical methods mainly include the in situ classic type and the piggyback type; transplantation includes no liver prophase, no liver phase or new liver phase. Preoperative preparation, management of intraoperative and postoperative complications and postoperative long-term treatment are keys to success.

     
  8. 8.

    Severe hepatitis belongs to the categories of “acute jaundice”, “scourge jaundice”, and “hot liver” in traditional Chinese medicine. Treatment methods include Chinese traditional medicines, acupuncture and acupoint injection, external application of drugs, umbilical compress therapy, drip, blow nose therapy, earpins, and clysis. Dietary care is also an important part of traditional Chinese medicine treatment.

     

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. and Huazhong University of Science and Technology Press 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yu-Ming Wang
    • 1
  • Ke Li
    • 2
  • Xiao-Guang Dou
    • 3
  • Han Bai
    • 3
  • Xi-Ping Zhao
    • 4
  • Xiong Ma
    • 5
  • Lan-Juan Li
    • 6
    Email author
  • Zhi-Shui Chen
    • 4
  • Yuan-Cheng Huang
    • 4
  1. 1.Southwest HospitalThe First Hospital Affiliated To AMUChongqingChina
  2. 2.Beijing 302 HospitalBeijingChina
  3. 3.Shengjing Hospital of China Medical UniversityLiaoningChina
  4. 4.Tongji Hospital of Tongji Medical CollegeHuazhong University of Science and TechnologyWuhanChina
  5. 5.Renji HospitalShanghai Jiao Tong University School of MedicineShanghaiChina
  6. 6.The First Affiliated HospitalZhejiang UniversityZhejiangChina

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