Pulmonary Hemorrhage of the Newborn

  • Jing Liu
  • Erich Sorantin


Pulmonary hemorrhage of the newborn (PHN) is a common severe and critical disease in newborn infants, exhibiting complicated etiologies, rapid progression, and a high mortality rate [1, 2]. It was reported that the incidence rate of PHN was 1–12‰ of live births, increasing to 50‰ in infants with high-risk factors [3]. The common risk factors included premature birth, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), severe birth asphyxia, hypoxia, oxygen toxicity, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), RDS, MAS, hypotension, severe infection or sepsis, polycythemia, mechanical ventilation, multiple births, male gender, and surfactant therapy [1]. We observed that the primary causes of PHN were severe intrauterine infection (33.3%), severe birth asphyxia (21.1%), and RDS (21.1%), accounting for more than 75% of the patients. MAS and severe postnatal infection accounted for 25% of these patients. PHN often occurred within the first several days after birth. In this study, 71.4% of the cases developed PHN within several hours to 24 h after birth, 80.4% developed PHN within 3 days of life, 89.5% developed PHN within 7 days of life, and only 10.5% developed PHN between 1 and 2 weeks after birth, meaning that nearly 90% of the NPH cases occurred within the first week of life.

Supplementary material

Video 8.1

(MOV 908 kb)


  1. 1.
    Zahr RA, Ashfaq A, Marron-Corwin M. Neonatal pulmonary hemorrhage. NeoReviews. 2012;13(5):e302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Shi Y, Zhao J, Tang S, Pan F, Liu L, et al. Effect of hemocoagulase for prevention of pulmonary hemorrhage in critical newborns on mechanical ventilation: a randomized controlled trial. Indian Pediatr. 2008;45(3):199–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Berger TM, Allred EN, Van Marter LJ. Antecedents of clinically significant pulmonary hemorrhage among newborn infants. J Perinatol. 2000;20(5):295–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    AlKharfy TM. High-frequency ventilation in the management of very-low-birth-weight infants with pulmonary hemorrhage. Am J Perinatol. 2004;21(1):19–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lodha A, Kamaluddeen M, Akierman A, Amin H. Role of hemocoagulase in pulmonary hemorrhage in preterm infants: a systematic review. Indian J Pediatr. 2011;78(7):838–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Shi Y, Tang S, Li H, Zhao J, Pan F. New treatment of neonatal pulmonary hemorrhage with hemocoagulase in addition to mechanical ventilation. Biol Neonate. 2005;88(2):118–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ren XL, Fu W, Liu J, et al. Lung ultrasonography to diagnose pulmonary hemorrhage of the newborn. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2017;30(21):2601–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Touw HRW, Tuinman PR, Gelissen HPMM, et al. Lung ultrasound: routine practice for the next generation of internists. Neth J Med. 2015;73(3):100–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. and People's Medical Publishing House 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jing Liu
    • 1
  • Erich Sorantin
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Neonatology and NICUBeijing Chaoyang District Maternal and Child Health Care HospitalBeijingChina
  2. 2.Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of RadiologyMedical University GrazGrazAustria

Personalised recommendations