Advertisement

Gender and Migration: Evidence from Transnational Marriage Migration

  • Danièle Bélanger
  • Andrea Flynn
Chapter
Part of the International Handbooks of Population book series (IHOP, volume 8)

Abstract

Transnational marriage migration powerfully captures how migration – a demographic and social phenomenon – is highly contentious and gendered. Marriage migration generates intense controversy, visible in the many representations of marriage migrants in public discourse that reflect polarized stereotypes imbued with distinct gender messages. Sensationalist media accounts commonly portray women marriage migrants as abusing migration policies through fake marriages, or as helpless victims of trafficking. These dramatic depictions rarely capture how uneven economic development, demographic pressures, unprecedented ease of communication across vast differences, and accelerated international migration intersect in the arena of marriage in complex and highly gendered ways. In reality, there is a great deal of (gendered) diversity in the causes, consequences, and experiences that are captured under the broad umbrella of ‘marriage migration.’ To shed light on the complex articulations between gender, marriage, and migration in a globalized world, the present chapter outlines theoretical and empirical perspectives on transnational marriage migration, with an emphasis on marriage migration within Asia (Vietnam to South Korea and Taiwan) and to North America (Canada).

References

  1. Aguilar, D., & Lacsamana, A. (2004). Women and globalization. Amherst: Prometheus Books.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, M. J. (1993). A license to abuse: The impact of conditional status on female migrants. The Yale Law Journal, 102(6), 1401–1430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Angeles, L. C., & Sunanta, S. (2009). Demanding daughter duty. Critical Asian Studies, 41(4), 549–574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Appadurai, A. (1996). Modernity at large: Cultural dimensions of globalization. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  5. Arnold, F., Kishor, S., & Roy, T. K. (2002). Sex-selective abortions in India. Population and Development Review, 28(4), 759–785.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ballard, R. (1990). Migration and kinship: The differential effect of marriage rules on the processes of Punjabi migration to Britain. In C. Clarke, C. Peach, & S. Vertovek (Eds.), South Asians overseas: Contexts and communities (pp. 219–249). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Bélanger, D. (2007). The house and the classroom: Vietnamese immigrant spouses in South Korea and Taiwan. Population and Society, 3(1), 39–59.Google Scholar
  8. Bélanger, D. (2010). Marriages with foreign women in East Asia: Bride trafficking or voluntary migration? Population and Societies, 469, 1–4. (July-August 2010).Google Scholar
  9. Bélanger, D. (2016a). Beyond the brokers: Local marriage migration industries of rural Vietnam. Positions, 24(1), 71–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bélanger, D. (2016b). Marriage migration, single men, and social reproduction in migrants’ communities of origin in Vietnam. Critical Asian Studies, 48(4), 494–510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bélanger, D., & Tran, L. G. (2011). The impact of transnational migration on gender and marriage in sending communities of Vietnam. Current Sociology, 59(1), 59–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bélanger, D., & Khuat, O. T. H. (2009). Second trimester abortions and sex selection of children in northern urban Vietnam. Population Studies, 63(2), 163–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bélanger, D., & Nguyen, V. T. (2015). Mobilités, stratégies familiales et transformations du marché matrimonial au Vietnam. Autrepart, 2(74–75), 47–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bélanger, D., & Wang, H. Z. (2012). Transnationalism from below: Evidence from Vietnam-Taiwan cross-border marriages. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, 21(3), 291–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bélanger, D., Lee, H. K., & Wang, H. Z. (2010). Ethnic diversity and statistics in East Asia: ‘Foreign brides’ surveys in Taiwan and South Korea. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 33(6), 1108–1130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bélanger, D., Tran, L. G., & Duong, L. B. (2011). Marriage migrants as emigrants: Remittances of marriage migrant women from Vietnam to their natal families. Asian Population Studies, 7(2), 89–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bélanger, D., Hong, K. T., & Linh, T. G. (2013). Transnational marriages between Vietnamese women and Asian men in Vietnamese online media. Journal of Vietnamese Studies, 8(2), 81–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bielski, Z. (2009). I do…and I’m gone. The globe and mail. http://www.theglobeandmail.com/life/article1138892.ece. Accessed 26 Oct 2010.
  19. Birrell, B. (1995). Spouse migration to Australia. People and Place, 3(1), 9–16.Google Scholar
  20. Boyd, M. (1997). Migration policy, female dependency, and family membership: Canada and Germany. In P. M. Evans & G. R. Wekerle (Eds.), Women and the Canadian welfare state: Challenges and change (pp. 142–169). Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  21. Boyd, M., & Norris, D. (2001). Who are the “Canadians”? Changing census responses 1986–1996. Canadian Ethnic Studies, 33(1), 1–24.Google Scholar
  22. Boyle, P., Halfacree, K., & Robinson, V. (1998). Exploring contemporary migration. New York: Addison Wesley Longman Ltd..Google Scholar
  23. Brennan, D. (2003). Selling sex for visas: Sex tourism as a stepping-stone to international migration. In A. R. Hochschild & B. Ehrenreich (Eds.), Global woman: Nannies, maids, and sex workers in the new economy (pp. 154–168). New York: Metropolitan Books.Google Scholar
  24. Brown, J. M. (2006). Global South Asians: Introducing the modern diaspora. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Castles, S. (2004). Why migration policies fail. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 27(2), 205–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Castles, S., & Miller, M. J. (2003). The age of migration: International population movements in the modern world (3rd ed.). Basingstoke: Palgrave-Macmillan.Google Scholar
  27. Chaudhuri, S., Morash, M., & Yingling, J. (2014). Marriage migration, patriarchal bargains, and wife abuse: A Study of South Asian women. Violence Against Women, 20(2), 141–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cheng, C. M. C., & Choo, H. Y. (2015). Women’s migration for domestic work and cross-border marriage in East and Southeast Asia: Reproducing domesticity, contesting citizenship. Sociology Compass, 9(8), 654–667.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Chung, C., Kim, K., & Piper, N. (2016). Marriage migration in Southeast and East Asia revisited through a migration-development nexus lens. Critical Asian Studies, 48(4), 463–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Citizenship and Immigration Canada. (2015). Figures: Immigration overview – permanent residents 2014. http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/pdf/2014-Facts-Permanent.pdf. Accessed 11 Jan 2017.
  31. Connelly, M. P., Li, T. M., MacDonald, M., & Parpart, J. L. (2000). Feminism and development: Theoretical perspectives. In J. L. Parpart, M. P. Connelly, & V. E. Barriteau (Eds.), Theoretical perspectives on gender and development (pp. 51–160). Ottawa: International Development Research Centre.Google Scholar
  32. Constable, N. (2003). Romance on a global stage: Pen pals, virtual ethnography and ‘mail-order’ marriages. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  33. Constable, N. (2005). Introduction: Cross-border marriages, gendered mobility, and global hypergamy. In N. Constable (Ed.), Cross-border marriages: Gender and mobility in transnational Asia (pp. 1–16). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  34. Côté, A., Kerisit, M., & Côté, M.-L. (2001). Sponsorship… For better or for worse: The impact of sponsorship on the equality rights of immigrant women. Ottawa: Status of Women Canada.Google Scholar
  35. Croes, H., & Hooimeijer, P. (2009). Gender and chain migration: The case of Aruba. Population, Space and Place, 16(2), 121–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Curtis, B. (1994). On the local construction of statistical knowledge: Making up the Census of the Canadas, 1861. Journal of Historical Sociology, 10(4), 416–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Curtis, B. (2002). The politics of population: State formation, statistics, and the Census of Canada, 1840–1875. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  38. Das Gupta, T. (1995). Families of native peoples, immigrants, and people of colour. In N. Mandell & A. Duffy (Eds.), Canadian families: Diversity, conflict and change (pp. 141–174). Toronto: Harcourt Brace.Google Scholar
  39. DHS Office of Immigration Statistisc (2016). Annual flow report: U.S. lawful permanent residents: 2014. https://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/Lawful_Permanent_Residents_2014.pdf. Accessed 9 Jan 2017.
  40. Fan, C. C., & Huang, Y. (1998). Waves of rural brides: Female marriage migration in China. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 88(2), 227–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Flynn, A. (2011). Constructing categories, imagining a Nation: A qualitative critical analysis of Canadian immigration discourse. The University of Western Ontario, unpublished PhD thesis.Google Scholar
  42. Glick Schiller, N. (1999). Transmigrants and nation-states: Something old and something new in the U.S. immigrant experience. In C. Hirschman, J. DeWind, & P. Kasinitz (Eds.), Handbook of international migration: The American experience (pp. 94–119). New York: Russell Sage.Google Scholar
  43. Glick Schiller, N., Basch, L., & Szanton Blanc, C. (1995). From immigrant to transmigrant: Theorizing transnational migration. Anthropological Quarterly, 68(1), 48–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Guarnizo, L. (1997). The emergence of a transnational social formation and the mirage of return migration among Dominican transmigrants. Identities, 4(2), 281–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hondagneu-Sotelo, P. (2000). Feminism and migration. The Annals of the American Academy, 571(1), 107–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hsia, H.-C. (2004). Internationalization of capital and the trade in Asian women: The case of “foreign brides” in Taiwan. In D. Aguilar & A. Lacsamana (Eds.), Women and globalization (pp. 181–229). Amherst: Prometheus Books.Google Scholar
  47. Hsia, H.-C. (2007). Imaged and imagined threat to the nation: The media construction of the ‘foreign brides’ phenomenon’ as problems in Taiwan. Inter-Asia Cultural Studies, 8(1), 55–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Jones, G., & Shen, H. H. (2008). International marriage in East and Southeast Asia: Trends and research emphases. Citizenship Studies, 12(1), 9–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Junhong, C. (2001). Prenatal sex determination and sex-selective abortion in rural Central China. Population and Development Review, 27(2), 259–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kabeer, N. (2002). Citizenship, affiliation and exclusion: Perspectives from the south. IDS Bulletin, 33(2), 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kertzer, D. I., & Arel, D. (2002). Census and identity: The politics of race, ethnicity, and language in National Censuses. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  52. Khoo, S. E. (2001). The context of spouse migration to Australia. International Migration, 39(1), 111–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kim, D. S. (2004). Missing girls in South Korea: Trends, levels and regional variations. Population (English edition), 59(6), 865–878.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. King-O’Riain, R. C. (2007). Counting on the ‘Celtic tiger’: Adding ethnic census categories in the Republic of Ireland. Ethnicities, 7(4), 516–542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Lauser, A. (2006). Philippine women on the move: A transnational perspective on marriage migration. Internationales Asienforum, 37(3–4), 321–337.Google Scholar
  56. Lauser, A. (2008). Philippine women on the move: Marriage across borders. International Migration, 46(4), 85–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lee, H. K. (2008). International marriage and the state in South Korea: Focusing on governmental policy. Citizenship Studies, 12(1), 107–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Lu, M. C. W. (2005). Commercially arranged marriage migration: Case studies on cross-border marriages in Taiwan. Indian Journal of Gender Studies, 12(2–3), 275–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Massey, D. S., Arango, J., Hugo, G., Kouaouci, A., Pellegrino, A., & Taylor, J. E. (1994). An evaluation of international migration theory: The North American case. Population and Development Review, 20(4), 699–751.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Mahler, S. J., & Pessar, P. R. (2001). Gendered Geographies of Power: Analyzing Gender Across Transnational Spaces. Identities, 7(4), 441-459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. McKay, D. (2003). Filipinas in Canada – Deskilling as a push toward marriage. In N. Piper & M. Roces (Eds.), Wife or worker? Asian women and migration (pp. 23–52). Lanham: Rowman & Littleman.Google Scholar
  62. Merali, N. (2008). Theoretical frameworks for studying female marriage migrants. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 32(3), 281–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Merali, N. (2009). Experiences of South Asian brides entering Canada after recent changes to family sponsorship policies. Violence Against Women, 15(3), 321–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Nakamatsu, T. (2005). Complex power and diverse responses: Transnational marriage migration and women’s agency. In L. Parker (Ed.), The agency of women in Asia (pp. 158–181). Singapore: Marshall Cavesish International.Google Scholar
  65. Narayan, U. (1995). “Male-order” brides: Immigrant women, domestic violence and immigration law. Hypatia, 10(1), 104–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Nobles, M. (2000). Shades of citizenship: Race and the census in modern politics. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  67. Nobles, M. (2002). Racial categorization and censuses. In D. I. Kertzer & D. Arel (Eds.), Census and identity: The politics of race, ethnicity, and language in national censuses (pp. 43–70). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  68. O’Neil, P. (2015). Phoney marriages threaten immigration system, report warns. Vancouver Sun. http://www.vancouversun.com/life/Federal+report+warns+marriages+convenience+threat+immigration+system/10953202/story.html. Accessed 22 Feb 2012.
  69. Onishi, N. (2007). Korean men use brokers to find wives in Vietnam. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/02/22/world/asia/22brides.html. Accessed 22 Feb 2012.
  70. Palriwala, R., & Uberoi, P. (2005). Marriage and migration in Asia: Gender issues. Indian Journal of Gender Studies, 12(5), v–xxix.Google Scholar
  71. Palriwala, R., & Uberoi, P. (Eds.). (2008). Marriage, migration and gender. Los Angeles: Sage.Google Scholar
  72. Park, C. B., & Cho, N. H. (1995). Consequences of son preference in a low-fertility society: Imbalance of the sex ratio at birth in Korea. Population and Development Review, 21(1), 59–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Parrenas, R. S. (2003). The care crisis in the Philippines: Children and transnational families in the new global economy. In B. Ehrenreich & A. R. Hochschild (Eds.), Global woman: Nannies, maids, and sex workers in the new economy (pp. 34–54). New York: Metropolitain Books.Google Scholar
  74. Parrenas, R. S., Thai, H. C., & Silvey, R. (2016). Guest editors’ introduction intimate industries: Restructuring (Im)Material labor in Asia. Positions, 24(1), 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Piper, N. (1999). Labor migration, trafficking and international marriage: Female cross-border movements into Japan. Asian Journal of Women’s Studies, 5(2), 69–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Piper, N. (2003). Bridging gender, migration and governance: Theoretical possibilities in the Asian context. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, 12(1–2), 21–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Piper, N., & Lee, S. (2016). Marriage migration, migrant precarity, and social reproduction in Asia: An overview. Critical Asian Studies, 48(4), 473–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Piper, N., & Roces, M. (2003). Introduction: Marriage and migration in an age of globalization. In N. Piper & M. Roces (Eds.), Wife or worker? Asian women and migration (pp. 1–21). Lanham: Rowman & Littleman.Google Scholar
  79. Portes, A., Guarnizo, L. E., & Landolt, P. (1999). The Study of transnationalism: Pitfall and promise of an emergent research field. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 22(2), 217–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Rallu, J.-L., Piché, V., & Simon, P. (2006). Demography and ethnicity: An ambiguous relationship. In G. Casseli, J. Vallin, G. Wunsch, & D. Courgeau (Eds.), Demography: Analysis and synthesis (Vol. III, pp. 531–549). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  81. Riley, N. (2004). China’s population: New trends and challenges. Population Bulletin, 59(2), 1–36.Google Scholar
  82. Robinson, K. (2007). Marriage migration, gender transformations, and family values in the ‘global ecumene’. Gender, Place & Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography, 14(4), 483–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Schans, D. (2011). ‘Every successful African has a Japanese wife: Motivations for international marriage among Sub-Saharan African immigrants in Japan. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population Conference on Marriage migration in a global world. South Korea, Oct. 20–22, 2011.Google Scholar
  84. Schiller, N. G. (1999). Citizens in transnational nation-states. The Asian experience. In K. Olds, P. Dicken, P. F. Kelly, L. Kong, & H. W. C. Yeung (Eds.), Globalisation and the Asia-Pacific: Contested territories (pp. 193–209). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  85. Scholte, J. A. (1997). Global capitalism and the State. International Affairs, 73(3), 427–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Schuerkens, U. (2005). Transnational migrations and social transformations: A theoretical perspective. Current Sociology, 53(4), 535–553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Skeldon, R. (2000). Trends in international migration in the Asian and Pacific region. International Social Science Journal, 52(165), 369–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Tang, W. H. A., Bélanger, D., & Wang, H. Z. (2011). Politics of negotiation between Vietnamese wives and Taiwanese husbands. In T. W. Ngo & H. Z. Wang (Eds.), Politics of difference in Taiwan (pp. 134–150). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  89. Thai, H. C. (2005). Clashing dreams in the Vietnamese diaspora: Highly educated overseas brides and low-wage U.S. husbands. In N. Constable (Ed.), Cross-border marriages: Gender and mobility in transnational Asia (pp. 145–165). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  90. Thobani, S. (1999). Sponsoring immigrant women’s inequalities. Canadian Woman Studies, 19(3), 11–16.Google Scholar
  91. Thobani, S. (2000a). Closing ranks: Racism and sexism in Canada’s immigration policy. Race & Class, 42(1), 35–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Thobani, S. (2000b). Nationalizing Canadians: Bordering immigrant women in the late twentieth century. Canadian Journal of Women and Law, 12(2), 279–312.Google Scholar
  93. Tolentino, R. B. (1996). Bodies, letters, catalogs: Filipinas in transnational space. Social Text 48, 14(3), 49–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Toyota, M. (2008). Editorial introduction: International marriage, rights, and the state in East and Southeast Asia. Citizenship Studies, 12(1), 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Toyota, M., & Thang, L.L. (2011). Reverse marriage migration: Japanese brides in Southeast Asia. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population Conference on Marriage migration in a global world. South Korea, Oct. 20–22, 2011.Google Scholar
  96. Tsai, Y.-H., & Hsiao, M. H. (2006). The non-governmental organizations (NGOs) for foreign workers and foreign spouses in Taiwan: A portrayal. Asia Pacific Forum (Taipei), 32(1), 31.Google Scholar
  97. Vukov, T. (2003). Imagining communities through immigration policies: Governmental regulation, media spectacles and the affective politics of national borders. International Journal of Cultural Studies, 6(3), 335–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Walton-Roberts, M. (2004a). Rescaling citizenship: Gendering Canadian immigration policy. Political Geography, 23(3), 265–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Walton-Roberts, M. (2004b). Transnational migration theory in population geography: Gendered practices in networks linking Canada and India. Population, Space and Place, 10(5), 361–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Wang, H. Z. (2007). Hidden spaces of resistance of the subordinated: Case studies from Vietnamese female migrant partners in Taiwan. International Migration Review, 41(3), 706–727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Wang, H. Z., & Bélanger, D. (2008). Taiwanizing female immigrant spouses and materializing differential citizenship. Citizenship Studies, 12(1), 91–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Wang, H. Z., & Chang, S. M. (2002). The commodification of international marriages: Cross-border marriage business in Taiwan and Viet Nam. International Migration, 40(6), 93–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Yeoh, B. S., & Ramdas, K. (2014). Gender, migration, mobility and transnationalism. Gender, Place & Culture, 21(10), 1197–1213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Yeoh, B. S., Chee, H. L., & Vu, T. K. D. (2014). Global householding and the negotiation of intimate labour in commercially-matched international marriages between Vietnamese women and Singaporean men. Geoforum, 51, 284–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Danièle Bélanger
    • 1
  • Andrea Flynn
    • 2
  1. 1.Département de géographieUniversité LavalQuébecCanada
  2. 2.Quality & PerformanceLondon Health Sciences CentreLondonCanada

Personalised recommendations