Neurourology pp 457-478 | Cite as

Sexual Dysfunction and Fertility in Neurogenic Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction

  • Waleed Altaweel
  • Raouf Seyam


In the 90s a better understanding of the pathophysiology of erectile dysfunction (ED) was formulating [1]. Simultaneously the magnitude and the correlates of male sexual dysfunction were getting in focus [2]. A few years later, oral phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5i) came to use and along came the development of several objective assessment tools to gauge sexual dysfunction in men [3]. Parallel to these developments, lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) were under extensive investigations which resulted in a major shift in diagnosis and treatment. Not before long that the association of LUTS and male sexual dysfunction was clear [4]. Therapies that targeted both were tried [5, 6]. The female sexual dysfunction (FSD) finally reached focus and went along the path of development of objective assessment tools, identifying risk factors and looking at treatment options [7]. The association between a neurologic pathology and each facet of the genitourinary dysfunction is rampant in the literature, albite on a paired basis. The association between a neurologic pathology and either ED, orgasm, ejaculatory dysfunction, LUTS, fertility or FSD was repeatedly reported (Fig. 56.1). On the other hand, the association of LUTS on one hand and either male or female sexual dysfunction was a subject of many reports. There is a paucity of reporting of the association of the three conditions together whether in men or women. The purpose of this review is to shed light on citations that had a clear view of the presence of such association and how it was managed.


  1. 1.
    Lue TF. Erectile dysfunction. N Engl J Med. 2000;342:1802–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Feldman HA, Goldstein I, Hatzichristou DG, et al. Impotence and its medical and psychosocial correlates: results of the Massachusetts Male Aging Study. J Urol. 1994;151:54–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rosen RC, Riley A, Wagner G, et al. The international index of erectile function (IIEF): a multidimensional scale for assessment of erectile dysfunction. Urology. 1997;49:822–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Barqawi A, O’Donnell C, Kumar R, et al. Correlation between LUTS (AUA-SS) and erectile dysfunction (SHIM) in an age-matched racially diverse male population: data from the Prostate Cancer Awareness Week (PCAW). Int J Impot Res. 2005;17:370–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mulhall JP, Guhring P, Parker M, et al. Assessment of the impact of sildenafil citrate on lower urinary tract symptoms in men with erectile dysfunction. J Sex Med. 2006;3:662–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gonzalez RR, Kaplan SA. Tadalafil for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2006;2:609–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Basson R, Berman J, Burnett A, et al. Report of the international consensus development conference on female sexual dysfunction: definitions and classifications. J Urol. 2000;163:888–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Groen J, Pannek J, Castro Diaz D, et al. Summary of European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines on neuro-urology. Eur Urol. 2016;69:324–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hennessey A, Robertson NP, Swingler R, et al. Urinary, faecal and sexual dysfunction in patients with multiple sclerosis. J Neurol. 1999;246:1027–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Valleroy ML, Kraft GH. Sexual dysfunction in multiple sclerosis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1984;65:125–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zorzon M, Zivadinov R, Bosco A, et al. Sexual dysfunction in multiple sclerosis: a case-control study. I. Frequency and comparison of groups. Mult Scler. 1999;5:418–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Goldstein I, Siroky MB, Sax DS, et al. Neurourologic abnormalities in multiple sclerosis. J Urol. 1982;128:541–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bakke A, Myhr KM, Gronning M, et al. Bladder, bowel and sexual dysfunction in patients with multiple sclerosis—a cohort study. Scand J Urol Nephrol Suppl. 1996;179:61–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Nortvedt MW, Riise T, Frugard J, et al. Prevalence of bladder, bowel and sexual problems among multiple sclerosis patients two to five years after diagnosis. Mult Scler. 2007;13:106–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zorzon M, Zivadinov R, Monti Bragadin L, et al. Sexual dysfunction in multiple sclerosis: a 2-year follow-up study. J Neurol Sci. 2001;187:1–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kisic Tepavcevic D, Pekmezovic T, Dujmovic Basuroski I, et al. Bladder dysfunction in multiple sclerosis: a 6-year follow-up study. Acta Neurol Belg. 2017;117:83–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zivadinov R, Zorzon M, Bosco A, et al. Sexual dysfunction in multiple sclerosis: II. Correlation analysis. Mult Scler. 1999;5:428–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mattson D, Petrie M, Srivastava DK, et al. Multiple sclerosis. Sexual dysfunction and its response to medications. Arch Neurol. 1995;52:862–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Winder K, Linker RA, Seifert F, et al. Neuroanatomic correlates of female sexual dysfunction in multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol. 2016;80:490–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hulter BM, Lundberg PO. Sexual function in women with advanced multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1995;59:83–6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Fraser C, Mahoney J, McGurl J. Correlates of sexual dysfunction in men and women with multiple sclerosis. J Neurosci Nurs. 2008;40:312–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Yang CC, Bowen JR, Kraft GH, et al. Cortical evoked potentials of the dorsal nerve of the clitoris and female sexual dysfunction in multiple sclerosis. J Urol. 2000;164:2010–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Borello-France D, Leng W, O’Leary M, et al. Bladder and sexual function among women with multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler. 2004;10:455–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Huynh HK, Willemsen ATM, Lovick TA, et al. Pontine control of ejaculation and female orgasm. J Sex Med. 2013;10:3038–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Zivadinov R, Zorzon M, Locatelli L, et al. Sexual dysfunction in multiple sclerosis: a MRI, neurophysiological and urodynamic study. J Neurol Sci. 2003;210:73–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Fragala E, Privitera S, Giardina R, et al. Determinants of sexual impairment in multiple sclerosis in male and female patients with lower urinary tract dysfunction: results from an Italian cross-sectional study. J Sex Med. 2014;11:2406–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Betts CD, Jones SJ, Fowler CG, et al. Erectile dysfunction in multiple sclerosis. Associated neurological and neurophysiological deficits, and treatment of the condition. Brain J Neurol. 1994;117:1303–10.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Nortvedt MW, Riise T, Myhr KM, et al. Reduced quality of life among multiple sclerosis patients with sexual disturbance and bladder dysfunction. Mult Scler. 2001;7:231–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Vitkova M, Rosenberger J, Krokavcova M, et al. Health-related quality of life in multiple sclerosis patients with bladder, bowel and sexual dysfunction. Disabil Rehabil. 2014;36:987–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Zorzon M, Zivadinov R, Locatelli L, et al. Correlation of sexual dysfunction and brain magnetic resonance imaging in multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler. 2003;9:108–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lottman PE, Jongen PJ, Rosier PF, et al. Sexual dysfunction in men with multiple sclerosis—a comprehensive pilot-study into etiology. Int J Impot Res. 1998;10:233–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Fragala E, Russo GI, Di Rosa A, et al. Relationship between urodynamic findings and sexual function in multiple sclerosis patients with lower urinary tract dysfunction. Eur J Neurol. 2015;22:485–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Giannantoni A, Proietti S, Giusti G, et al. OnabotulinumtoxinA intradetrusorial injections improve sexual function in female patients affected by multiple sclerosis: preliminary results. World J Urol. 2015;33:2095–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lucio AC, D’Ancona CAL, Lopes MHBM, et al. The effect of pelvic floor muscle training alone or in combination with electrostimulation in the treatment of sexual dysfunction in women with multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler. 2014;20:1761–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Francomano D, Ilacqua A, Cortese A, et al. Effects of daily tadalafil on lower urinary tract symptoms in young men with multiple sclerosis and erectile dysfunction: a pilot study. J Endocrinol Investig. 2017;40:275–9.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Safarinejad MR. Midodrine for the treatment of organic anejaculation but not spinal cord injury: a prospective randomized placebo-controlled double-blind clinical study. Int J Impot Res. 2009;21:213–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    O’Sullivan SS, Hardiman O. Detection rates of sexual dysfunction amongst patients with multiple sclerosis in an outpatient setting—can this be improved? Ir Med J. 2006;99:304–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Brinkhof MWG, Al-Khodairy A, Eriks-Hoogland I, et al. Health conditions in people with spinal cord injury: contemporary evidence from a population-based community survey in Switzerland. J Rehabil Med. 2016;48:197–209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Sorensen MD, Wessells H, Rivara FP, et al. Prevalence and predictors of sexual dysfunction 12 months after major trauma: a national study. J Trauma. 2008;65:1045–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Fisher TL, Laud PW, Byfield MG, et al. Sexual health after spinal cord injury: a longitudinal study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2002;83:1043–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Alexander MS, Biering-Sorensen F, Elliott S, et al. International spinal cord injury male sexual function basic data set. Spinal Cord. 2011;49:795–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Alexander MS, Biering-Sorensen F, Elliott S, et al. International spinal cord injury female sexual and reproductive function basic data set. Spinal Cord. 2011;49:787–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Biering-Sorensen I, Hansen RB, Biering-Sorensen F. Sexual function in a traumatic spinal cord injured population 10-45 years after injury. J Rehabil Med. 2012;44:926–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Valtonen K, Karlsson A-K, Siosteen A, et al. Satisfaction with sexual life among persons with traumatic spinal cord injury and meningomyelocele. Disabil Rehabil. 2006;28:965–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    New PW, Currie KE. Development of a comprehensive survey of sexuality issues including a self-report version of the International Spinal Cord Injury sexual function basic data sets. Spinal Cord. 2016;54:584–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Schmid DM, Hauri D, Schurch B. Nocturnal penile tumescence and rigidity (NPTR) findings in spinal cord injured men with erectile dysfunction. Int J Impot Res. 2004;16:433–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Lassmann J, Garibay Gonzalez F, Melchionni JB, et al. Sexual function in adult patients with spina bifida and its impact on quality of life. J Urol. 2007;178:1611–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Lee NG, Andrews E, Rosoklija I, et al. The effect of spinal cord level on sexual function in the spina bifida population. J Pediatr Urol. 2015;11:142.e1–6.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Lombardi G, Mondaini N, Iazzetta P, et al. Sexuality in patients with spinal cord injuries due to attempted suicide. Spinal Cord. 2008;46:53–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Khak M, Hassanijirdehi M, Afshari-Mirak S, et al. Evaluation of sexual function and its contributing factors in men with spinal cord injury using a self-administered questionnaire. Am J Mens Health. 2016;10:24–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Ku JH, Oh S-J, Jeon HG, et al. Sexual activity in Korean male patients on clean intermittent catheterization with neurogenic bladder due to spinal cord injury. Int J Urol. 2006;13:42–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Akman RY, Coskun Celik E, Karatas M. Sexuality and sexual dysfunction in spinal cord-injured men in Turkey. Turk J Med Sci. 2015;45:758–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Pakpour AH, Rahnama P, Saberi H, et al. The relationship between anxiety, depression and religious coping strategies and erectile dysfunction in Iranian patients with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2016;54:1053–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Lombardi G, Macchiarella A, Cecconi F, et al. Sexual life of males over 50 years of age with spinal-cord lesions of at least 20 years. Spinal Cord. 2008;46:679–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Alexander CJ, Sipski ML, Findley TW. Sexual activities, desire, and satisfaction in males pre- and post-spinal cord injury. Arch Sex Behav. 1993;22:217–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Barbonetti A, Cavallo F, Felzani G, et al. Erectile dysfunction is the main determinant of psychological distress in men with spinal cord injury. J Sex Med. 2012;9:830–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Choi Y-A, Kang J-H, Shin HI. Sexual activity and sexual satisfaction in Korean men with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2015;53:697–700.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Cardoso FL, Savall ACR, Mendes AK. Self-awareness of the male sexual response after spinal cord injury. Int J Rehabil Res. 2009;32:294–300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Dahlberg A, Alaranta HT, Kautiainen H, et al. Sexual activity and satisfaction in men with traumatic spinal cord lesion. J Rehabil Med. 2007;39:152–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Barbonetti A, Vassallo MRC, Pacca F, et al. Correlates of low testosterone in men with chronic spinal cord injury. Andrology. 2014;2:721–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Phelps J, Albo M, Dunn K, et al. Spinal cord injury and sexuality in married or partnered men: activities, function, needs, and predictors of sexual adjustment. Arch Sex Behav. 2001;30:591–602.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Sipski M, Alexander CJ, Gomez-Marin O. Effects of level and degree of spinal cord injury on male orgasm. Spinal Cord. 2006;44:798–804.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Courtois F, Charvier K, Leriche A, et al. Perceived physiological and orgasmic sensations at ejaculation in spinal cord injured men. J Sex Med. 2008;5:2419–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Kuhr CS, Heiman J, Cardenas D, et al. Premature emission after spinal cord injury. J Urol. 1995;153:429–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Courtois F, Charvier K. Premature ejaculation associated with lumbosacral lesions. Spinal Cord. 2014;52:905–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Courtois F, Charvier K, Vezina J-G, et al. Assessing and conceptualizing orgasm after a spinal cord injury. BJU Int. 2011;108:1624–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Virseda-Chamorro M, Salinas-Casado J, Lopez-Garcia-Moreno AM, et al. Sexual dysfunction in men with spinal cord injury: a case-control study. Int J Impot Res. 2013;25:133–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Cobo Cuenca AI, Sampietro-Crespo A, Virseda-Chamorro M, et al. Psychological impact and sexual dysfunction in men with and without spinal cord injury. J Sex Med. 2015;12:436–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Laessoe L, Sonksen J, Bagi P, et al. Effects of ejaculation by penile vibratory stimulation on bladder capacity in men with spinal cord lesions. J Urol. 2003;169:2216–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Schmid DM, Curt A, Hauri D, et al. Clinical value of combined electrophysiological and urodynamic recordings to assess sexual disorders in spinal cord injured men. Neurourol Urodyn. 2003;22:314–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Laessoe L, Nielsen JB, Biering-Sorensen F, et al. Antispastic effect of penile vibration in men with spinal cord lesion. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2003;85:919–24.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Alaca R, Goktepe AS, Yildiz N, et al. Effect of penile vibratory stimulation on spasticity in men with spinal cord injury. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2005;84:875–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Gordon SA, Stage KH, Tansey KE, et al. Conservative management of priapism in acute spinal cord injury. Urology. 2005;65:1195–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Shin T-Y, Ryu J-K, Jin H-R, et al. Increased cavernous expression of transforming growth factor-beta1 and activation of the Smad signaling pathway affects erectile dysfunction in men with spinal cord injury. J Sex Med. 2011;8:1454–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Ku JH, Jung TY, Lee JK, et al. Influence of bladder management on epididymo-orchitis in patients with spinal cord injury: clean intermittent catheterization is a risk factor for epididymo-orchitis. Spinal Cord. 2006;44:165–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Mirsadraee S, Mahdavi R, Moghadam HV, et al. Epididymo-orchitis risk factors in traumatic spinal cord injured patients. Spinal Cord. 2003;41:516–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Game X, Moscovici J, Game L, et al. Evaluation of sexual function in young men with spina bifida and myelomeningocele using the International Index of Erectile Function. Urology. 2006;67:566–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    He S, Hussain N, Zhao J, et al. Improvement of sexual function in male patients treated surgically for cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Spine. 2006;31:33–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Hajiaghababaei M, Javidan AN, Saberi H, et al. Female sexual dysfunction in patients with spinal cord injury: a study from Iran. Spinal Cord. 2014;52:646–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Moreno-Lozano M, Duran-Ortiz S, Perez-Zavala R, et al. Sociodemographic factors associated with sexual dysfunction in Mexican women with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2014;54:746–9.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Anderson KD, Borisoff JF, Johnson RD, et al. Spinal cord injury influences psychogenic as well as physical components of female sexual ability. Spinal Cord. 2007;45:349–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Ferreiro-Velasco ME, Barca-Buyo A, de la Barrera SS, et al. Sexual issues in a sample of women with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2005;43:51–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Sipski ML, Alexander CJ, Rosen R. Sexual arousal and orgasm in women: effects of spinal cord injury. Ann Neurol. 2001;49:35–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Komisaruk BR, Whipple B, Crawford A, et al. Brain activation during vaginocervical self-stimulation and orgasm in women with complete spinal cord injury: fMRI evidence of mediation by the vagus nerves. Brain Res. 2004;1024:77–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Kreuter M, Siosteen A, Biering-Sorensen F. Sexuality and sexual life in women with spinal cord injury: a controlled study. J Rehabil Med. 2008;40:61–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Kreuter M, Taft C, Siosteen A, Biering-Sorensen F. Women’s sexual functioning and sex life after spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2011;49:154–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Celik EC, Akman Y, Kose P, et al. Sexual problems of women with spinal cord injury in Turkey. Spinal Cord. 2004;52:313–5.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Otero-Villaverde S, Ferreiro-Velasco ME, Montoto-Marques A, et al. Sexual satisfaction in women with spinal cord injuries. Spinal Cord. 2015;53:557–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Matzaroglou C, Assimakopoulos K, Panagiotopoulos E, et al. Sexual function in females with severe cervical spinal cord injuries: a controlled study with the Female Sexual Function Index. Int J Rehabil Res. 2005;28:375–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Game X, Moscovici J, Guillotreau J, et al. Sexual function of young women with myelomeningocele. J Pediatr Urol. 2014;10:418–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Aloni R, Heller L, Keren O, et al. Noninvasive treatment for erectile dysfunction in the neurogenically disabled population. J Sex Marital Ther. 1992;18:243–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Jaworski TM, Richards JS, Lloyd LK. Retrospective review of sexual and marital satisfaction of spinal cord injury and diabetic males post penile injection or implant. Urology. 1992;40:127–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Jia D-D, Shuang W-B, Cheng T, et al. Efficacy and safety of phosphodieterase-5 inhibitors for treatment of erectile dysfunction secondary to spinal cord injury: a systemic review and meta-analysis. Spinal Cord. 2016;54:494–501.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Giuliano F, Hultling C, El Masry WS, et al. Randomized trial of sildenafil for the treatment of erectile dysfunction in spinal cord injury. Sildenafil Study Group. Ann Neurol. 1999;46:15–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Sanchez Ramos A, Vidal J, Jauregui ML, et al. Efficacy, safety and predictive factors of therapeutic success with sildenafil for erectile dysfunction in patients with different spinal cord injuries. Spinal Cord. 2001;39:637–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Schmid DM, Schurch B, Hauri D. Sildenafil in the treatment of sexual dysfunction in spinal cord-injured male patients. Eur Urol. 2000;38:184–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Ergin S, Gunduz B, Ugurlu H, et al. A placebo-controlled, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, flexible-dose, two-way crossover study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of sildenafil in men with traumatic spinal cord injury and erectile dysfunction. J Spinal Cord Med. 2008;31:522–31.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Lombardi G, Macchiarella A, Cecconi F, et al. Ten-year follow-up of sildenafil use in spinal cord-injured patients with erectile dysfunction. J Sex Med. 2009;6:3449–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Khorrami MH, Javid A, Moshtaghi D, et al. Sildenafil efficacy in erectile dysfunction secondary to spinal cord injury depends on the level of cord injuries. Int J Androl. 2010;33:861–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Hultling C, Giuliano F, Quirk F, et al. Quality of life in patients with spinal cord injury receiving Viagra (sildenafil citrate) for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. Spinal Cord. 2000;38:363–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Yildiz N, Gokkaya NKO, Koseoglu F, et al. Efficacies of papaverine and sildenafil in the treatment of erectile dysfunction in early-stage paraplegic men. Int J Rehabil Res. 2011;34:44–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Garcia-Bravo AM, Suarez-Hernandez D, Ruiz-Fernandez MA, et al. Determination of changes in blood pressure during administration of sildenafil (Viagra) in patients with spinal cord injury and erectile dysfunction. Spinal Cord. 2006;44:301–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Ethans KD, Casey AR, Schryvers OI, et al. The effects of sildenafil on the cardiovascular response in men with spinal cord injury at or above the sixth thoracic level. J Spinal Cord Med. 2003;26:222–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Sheel AW, Krassioukov AV, Inglis JT, et al. Autonomic dysreflexia during sperm retrieval in spinal cord injury: influence of lesion level and sildenafil citrate. J Appl Physiol. 2005;99:53–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Soler JM, Previnaire JG, Denys P, et al. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors in the treatment of erectile dysfunction in spinal cord-injured men. Spinal Cord. 2007;45:169–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Giuliano F, Sanchez-Ramos A, Lochner-Ernst D, et al. Efficacy and safety of tadalafil in men with erectile dysfunction following spinal cord injury. Arch Neurol. 2007;64:1584–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Lombardi G, Macchiarella A, Cecconi F, et al. Efficacy and safety of medium and long-term tadalafil use in spinal cord patients with erectile dysfunction. J Sex Med. 2009;6:535–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Del Popolo G, Li Marzi V, Mondaini N, et al. Time/duration effectiveness of sildenafil versus tadalafil in the treatment of erectile dysfunction in male spinal cord-injured patients. Spinal Cord. 2004;42:643–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Giuliano F, Rubio-Aurioles E, Kennelly M, et al. Efficacy and safety of vardenafil in men with erectile dysfunction caused by spinal cord injury. Neurology. 2006;66:210–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Giuliano F, Rubio-Aurioles E, Kennelly M, et al. Vardenafil improves ejaculation success rates and self-confidence in men with erectile dysfunction due to spinal cord injury. Spine. 2008;33:709–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Kimoto Y, Sakamoto S, Fujikawa K, et al. Up-titration of vardena fi l dose from 10 mg to 20 mg improved erectile function in men with spinal cord injury. Int J Urol. 2006;13:1428–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Taie K, Moombeini H, Khazaeli D, et al. Improvement of urodynamic indices by single dose oral tadalafil in men with supra sacral spinal cord injury. Urol J. 2010;7:249–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Gacci M, Del Popolo G, Macchiarella A, et al. Vardenafil improves urodynamic parameters in men with spinal cord injury: results from a single dose, pilot study. J Urol. 2007;178:2040–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Watanabe T, Chancellor MB, Rivas DA, et al. Epidemiology of current treatment for sexual dysfunction in spinal cord injured men in the USA model spinal cord injury centers. J Spinal Cord Med. 1996;19:186–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Yarkony GM, Chen D, Palmer J, et al. Management of impotence due to spinal cord injury using low dose papaverine. Paraplegia. 1995;33:77–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Kapoor VK, Chahal AS, Jyoti SP, et al. Intracavernous papaverine for impotence in spinal cord injured patients. Paraplegia. 1993;31:675–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Hirsch IH, Smith RL, Chancellor MB, et al. Use of intracavernous injection of prostaglandin E1 for neuropathic erectile dysfunction. Paraplegia. 1994;32:661–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Soler J-M, Previnaire J-G, Mieusset R. Oral midodrine for prostaglandin e1 induced priapism in spinal cord injured patients. J Urol. 2009;182:1096–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Zaslau S, Nicolis C, Galea G, et al. A simplified pharmacologic erection program for patients with spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med. 1999;22:303–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Bodner DR, Haas CA, Krueger B, Seftel AD. Intraurethral alprostadil for treatment of erectile dysfunction in patients with spinal cord injury. Urology. 1999;53:199–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Denil J, Ohl DA, Smythe C. Vacuum erection device in spinal cord injured men: patient and partner satisfaction. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1996;77:750–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Iwatsubo E, Tanaka M, Takahashi K, et al. Non-inflatable penile prosthesis for the management of urinary incontinence and sexual disability of patients with spinal cord injury. Paraplegia. 1986;24:307–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Rossier AB, Fam BA. Indication and results of semirigid penile prostheses in spinal cord injury patients: long-term followup. J Urol. 1984;131:59–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Smith AD, Sazama R, Lange PH. Penile prosthesis: adjunct to treatment in patients with neurogenic bladder. J Urol. 1980;124:363–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Kimoto Y, Iwatsubo E. Penile prostheses for the management of the neuropathic bladder and sexual dysfunction in spinal cord injury patients: long term follow up. Paraplegia. 1994;32:336–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Zermann D-H, Kutzenberger J, Sauerwein D, et al. Penile prosthetic surgery in neurologically impaired patients: long-term followup. J Urol. 2006;175:1041–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Kim YD, Yang SO, Lee JK, et al. Usefulness of a malleable penile prosthesis in patients with a spinal cord injury. Int J Urol. 2008;15:919–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Perkash I, Kabalin JN, Lennon S, et al. Use of penile prostheses to maintain external condom catheter drainage in spinal cord injury patients. Paraplegia. 1992;30:327–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Cakan M, Demirel F, Karabacak O, et al. Risk factors for penile prosthetic infection. Int Urol Nephrol. 2003;35:209–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Kabalin JN, Kessler R. Infectious complications of penile prosthesis surgery. J Urol. 1988;139:953–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Collins KP, Hackler RH. Complications of penile prostheses in the spinal cord injury population. J Urol. 1988;140:984–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Xuan X-J, Wang D-H, Sun P, et al. Outcome of implanting penile prosthesis for treating erectile dysfunction: experience with 42 cases. Asian J Androl. 2007;9:716–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Lombardi G, Nelli F, Mencarini M, et al. Clinical concomitant benefits on pelvic floor dysfunctions after sacral neuromodulation in patients with incomplete spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2011;49:629–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Possover M. The sacral LION procedure for recovery of bladder/rectum/sexual functions in paraplegic patients after explantation of a previous Finetech-Brindley controller. J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2009;16:98–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    van der Aa HE, Alleman E, Nene A, et al. Sacral anterior root stimulation for bladder control: clinical results. Arch Physiol Biochem. 1999;107:248–56.0.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Sipski ML, Rosen RC, Alexander CJ, et al. Sildenafil effects on sexual and cardiovascular responses in women with spinal cord injury. Urology. 2000;55:812–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Alexander MS, Rosen RC, Steinberg S, et al. Sildenafil in women with sexual arousal disorder following spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2011;49:273–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Korse NS, Nicolai MPJ, Both S, et al. Discussing sexual health in spinal care. Eur Spine J. 2016;25:766–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    New PW, Seddon M, Redpath C, et al. Recommendations for spinal rehabilitation professionals regarding sexual education needs and preferences of people with spinal cord dysfunction: a mixed-methods study. Spinal Cord. 2016;54:1203–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Chehensse C, Bahrami S, Denys P, et al. The spinal control of ejaculation revisited: a systematic review and meta-analysis of anejaculation in spinal cord injured patients. Hum Reprod Update. 2013;19:507–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Claydon VE, Elliott SL, Sheel AW, et al. Cardiovascular responses to vibrostimulation for sperm retrieval in men with spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med. 2006;29:207–16.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Ekland MB, Krassioukov AV, McBride KE, et al. Incidence of autonomic dysreflexia and silent autonomic dysreflexia in men with spinal cord injury undergoing sperm retrieval: implications for clinical practice. J Spinal Cord Med. 2008;31:33–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Phillips AA, Elliott SL, Zheng MMZ, et al. Selective alpha adrenergic antagonist reduces severity of transient hypertension during sexual stimulation after spinal cord injury. J Neurotrauma. 2015;32:392–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Castle SM, Jenkins LC, Ibrahim E, et al. Safety and efficacy of a new device for inducing ejaculation in men with spinal cord injuries. Spinal Cord. 2014;2(52 Suppl):S27–9.Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Brackett NL, Ibrahim E, Iremashvili V, et al. Treatment for ejaculatory dysfunction in men with spinal cord injury: an 18-year single center experience. J Urol. 2010;183:2304–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Brackett NL, Ferrell SM, Aballa TC, et al. An analysis of 653 trials of penile vibratory stimulation in men with spinal cord injury. J Urol. 1998;159:1931–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Brackett NL, Kafetsoulis A, Ibrahim E, et al. Application of 2 vibrators salvages ejaculatory failures to 1 vibrator during penile vibratory stimulation in men with spinal cord injuries. J Urol. 2007;177:660–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Bird VG, Brackett NL, Lynne CM, et al. Reflexes and somatic responses as predictors of ejaculation by penile vibratory stimulation in men with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2001;39:514–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Chehensse C, Facchinetti P, Bahrami S, et al. Human spinal ejaculation generator. Ann Neurol. 2017;81:35–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Courtois FJ, Charvier KF, Leriche A, et al. Blood pressure changes during sexual stimulation, ejaculation and midodrine treatment in men with spinal cord injury. BJU Int. 2008;101:331–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Soler JM, Previnaire JG, Plante P, et al. Midodrine improves orgasm in spinal cord-injured men: the effects of autonomic stimulation. J Sex Med. 2008;5:2935–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Leduc BE, Fournier C, Jacquemin G, et al. Midodrine in patients with spinal cord injury and anejaculation: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled pilot study. J Spinal Cord Med. 2015;38:57–62.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Iremashvili V, Brackett NL, Ibrahim E, et al. The choice of assisted ejaculation method is relevant for the diagnosis of azoospermia in men with spinal cord injuries. Spinal Cord. 2011;49:55–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Brackett NL, Ead DN, Aballa TC, et al. Semen retrieval in men with spinal cord injury is improved by interrupting current delivery during electroejaculation. J Urol. 2002;167:201–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Sonksen J, Ohl DA, Wedemeyer G. Sphincteric events during penile vibratory ejaculation and electroejaculation in men with spinal cord injuries. J Urol. 2001;165:426–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Hultling C, Levi R, Amark SP, Sjoblom P. Semen retrieval and analysis in men with myelomeningocele. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2000;42:681–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Wieder JA, Lynne CM, Ferrell SM, et al. Brown-colored semen in men with spinal cord injury. J Androl. 1999;20:594–600.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Raviv G, Madgar I, Elizur S, et al. Testicular sperm retrieval and intra cytoplasmic sperm injection provide favorable outcome in spinal cord injury patients, failing conservative reproductive treatment. Spinal Cord. 2013;51:642–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Momen MN, Fahmy I, Amer M, et al. Semen parameters in men with spinal cord injury: changes and aetiology. Asian J Androl. 2007;9:684–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Kathiresan ASQ, Ibrahim E, Modh R, et al. Semen quality in ejaculates produced by masturbation in men with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2012;50:891–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Hamid R, Patki P, Bywater H, et al. Effects of repeated ejaculations on semen characteristics following spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2006;44:369–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Sonksen J, Ohl DA, Giwercman A, et al. Effect of repeated ejaculation on semen quality in spinal cord injured men. J Urol. 1999;161:1163–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Chen D, Hartwig DM, Roth EJ. Comparison of sperm quantity and quality in antegrade V retrograde ejaculates obtained by vibratory penile stimulation in males with spinal cord injury. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 1999;78:46–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Momose H, Hirao Y, Yamamoto M, et al. Electroejaculation in patients with spinal cord injury: first report of a large-scale experience from Japan. Int J Urol. 1995;2:326–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Ohl DA, Denil J, Fitzgerald-Shelton K, et al. Fertility of spinal cord injured males: effect of genitourinary infection and bladder management on results of electroejaculation. J Am Paraplegia Soc. 1992;15:53–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Mallidis C, Lim TC, Hill ST, et al. Collection of semen from men in acute phase of spinal cord injury. Lancet. 1994;343:1072–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Mallidis C, Lim TC, Hill ST, et al. Necrospermia and chronic spinal cord injury. Fertil Steril. 2000;74:221–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Giulini S, Pesce F, Madgar I, et al. Influence of multiple transrectal electroejaculations on semen parameters and intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcome. Fertil Steril. 2004;82:200–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Rutkowski SB, Middleton JW, Truman G, et al. The influence of bladder management on fertility in spinal cord injured males. Paraplegia. 1995;33:263–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Caremel R, Courtois F, Charvier K, et al. Side effects of intradetrusor botulinum toxin injections on ejaculation and fertility in men with spinal cord injury: preliminary findings. BJU Int. 2012;109:1698–702.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Iremashvili VV, Brackett NL, Ibrahim E, et al. A minority of men with spinal cord injury have normal semen quality—can we learn from them? A case-control study. Urology. 2010;76:347–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    de Lamirande E, Leduc BE, Iwasaki A, et al. Increased reactive oxygen species formation in semen of patients with spinal cord injury. Fertil Steril. 1995;63:637–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    OF P, Brackett NL, Sharma RK, et al. Seminal reactive oxygen species and sperm motility and morphology in men with spinal cord injury. Fertil Steril. 1997;67:1115–20.Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    Ohl DA, Menge AC, Jarow JP. Seminal vesicle aspiration in spinal cord injured men: insight into poor sperm quality. J Urol. 1999;162:2048–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Brackett NL, Lynne CM, Aballa TC, et al. Sperm motility from the vas deferens of spinal cord injured men is higher than from the ejaculate. J Urol. 2000;164:712–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Monga M, Dunn K, Rajasekaran M. Characterization of ultrastructural and metabolic abnormalities in semen from men with spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med. 2001;24:41–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Brackett NL, Ibrahim E, Grotas JA, et al. Higher sperm DNA damage in semen from men with spinal cord injuries compared with controls. J Androl. 2008;29:93–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Talebi AR, Khalili MA, Vahidi S, et al. Sperm chromatin condensation, DNA integrity, and apoptosis in men with spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med. 2013;36:140–6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Lynne CM, Aballa TC, Wang TJ, et al. Serum and semen prostate specific antigen concentrations are different in young spinal cord injured men compared to normal controls. J Urol. 1999;162:89–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Alexandrino AP, Rodrigues MAF, Matsuo T. Evaluation of serum and seminal levels of prostate specific antigen in men with spinal cord injury. J Urol. 2004;171:2230–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Maher AD, Patki P, Lindon JC, et al. Seminal oligouridinosis: low uridine secretion as a biomarker for infertility in spinal neurotrauma. Clin Chem. 2008;54:2063–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Alexandrino AP, Rodrigues MAF, Matsuo T, et al. Evaluation of seminal citrate level by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in men with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2009;47:878–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Iremashvili V, Brackett NL, Ibrahim E, et al. Hyaluronic acid binding and acrosin activity are decreased in sperm from men with spinal cord injury. Fertil Steril. 2010;94:1925–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Alexandrino AP, Rodrigues MAF, Matsuo T, et al. Evaluation of seminal zinc levels by atomic absorption in men with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2011;49:435–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Trabulsi EJ, Shupp-Byrne D, Sedor J, et al. Leukocyte subtypes in electroejaculates of spinal cord injured men. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2002;83:31–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Basu S, Aballa TC, Ferrell SM, et al. Inflammatory cytokine concentrations are elevated in seminal plasma of men with spinal cord injuries. J Androl. 2004;25:250–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Zhu J, Brackett NL, Aballa TC, et al. High seminal platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase activity in men with spinal cord injury. J Androl. 2006;27:429–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    da Silva BF, Souza GHMF. lo Turco EG, et al. Differential seminal plasma proteome according to semen retrieval in men with spinal cord injury. Fertil Steril. 2013;100:959–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    da Silva BF, Meng C, Helm D, et al. Towards understanding male infertility after spinal cord injury using quantitative proteomics. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2016;15:1424–34.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Ibrahim E, Castle SM, Aballa TC, et al. Neutralization of ASC improves sperm motility in men with spinal cord injury. Hum Reprod. 2014;29:2368–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Restelli AE, Bertolla RP, Spaine DM, et al. Quality and functional aspects of sperm retrieved through assisted ejaculation in men with spinal cord injury. Fertil Steril. 2009;91:819–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Qiu Y, Wang L-G, Zhang L-H, et al. Sperm chromosomal aneuploidy and DNA integrity of infertile men with anejaculation. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2012;29:185–94.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Qiu Y, Wang L-G, Zhang L-H, et al. Quality of sperm obtained by penile vibratory stimulation and percutaneous vasal sperm aspiration in men with spinal cord injury. J Androl. 2012;33:1036–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Krebs J, Gocking K, Pannek J. Testicular resistive index determined by Doppler ultrasonography in men with spinal cord injury—a case series. Andrologia. 2015;47:811–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Ibrahim E, Aballa TC, Roudebush WE, et al. Inhibin B is lower and anti-Mullerian hormone is similar in serum of men with spinal cord injuries compared to controls. Syst Biol Reprod Med. 2015;61:72–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    VanderBrink BA, Sivan B, Levitt MA, et al. Epididymitis in patients with anorectal malformations: a cause for urologic concern. Int Braz J Urol. 2014;40:676–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Soler J-M, Previnaire JG, Mieusset R. Evidence of a new pattern of ejaculation in men with spinal cord injury: ejaculation dyssynergia and implications for fertility. Spinal Cord. 2016;54:1210–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    da Silva BF, Borrelli MJ, Fariello RM, et al. Is sperm cryopreservation an option for fertility preservation in patients with spinal cord injury-induced anejaculation? Fertil Steril. 2010;94:564–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Krebs J, Gocking K, Kissling-Niggli M, et al. Cross-sectional study of the sperm quality in semen samples from spinal cord injured men after long-term cryopreservation. Andrology. 2015;3:213–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    DeForge D, Blackmer J, Garritty C, et al. Fertility following spinal cord injury: a systematic review. Spinal Cord. 2005;43:693–703.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Rutkowski SB, Geraghty TJ, Hagen DL, et al. A comprehensive approach to the management of male infertility following spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 1999;37:508–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Leduc BE. Treatment of infertility in 31 men with spinal cord injury. Can J Urol. 2012;19:6432–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Kathiresan ASQ, Ibrahim E, Aballa TC, et al. Pregnancy outcomes by intravaginal and intrauterine insemination in 82 couples with male factor infertility due to spinal cord injuries. Fertil Steril. 2011;96:328–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Sonksen J, Fode M, Lochner-Ernst D, et al. Vibratory ejaculation in 140 spinal cord injured men and home insemination of their partners. Spinal Cord. 2012;50:63–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Heruti RJ, Katz H, Menashe Y, et al. Treatment of male infertility due to spinal cord injury using rectal probe electroejaculation: the Israeli experience. Spinal Cord. 2001;39:168–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    McGuire C, Manecksha RP, Sheils P, et al. Electroejaculatory stimulation for male infertility secondary to spinal cord injury: the Irish experience in National Rehabilitation Hospital. Urology. 2011;77:83–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Lochner-Ernst D, Mandalka B, Kramer G, et al. Conservative and surgical semen retrieval in patients with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 1997;35:463–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Denil J, Kuczyk MA, Schultheiss D, et al. Use of assisted reproductive techniques for treatment of ejaculatory disorders. Andrologia. 1996;28:43–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Schatte EC, Orejuela FJ, Lipshultz LI, et al. Treatment of infertility due to anejaculation in the male with electroejaculation and intracytoplasmic sperm injection. J Urol. 2000l;163:1717–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Gat I, Maman E, Yerushalmi G, et al. Electroejaculation combined with intracytoplasmic sperm injection in patients with psychogenic anejaculation yields comparable results to patients with spinal cord injuries. Fertil Steril. 2012;97:1056–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Kanto S, Uto H, Toya M, et al. Fresh testicular sperm retrieved from men with spinal cord injury retains equal fecundity to that from men with obstructive azoospermia via intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Fertil Steril. 2009;92:1333–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Kathiresan ASQ, Ibrahim E, Aballa TC, et al. Comparison of in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes in male factor infertility patients with and without spinal cord injuries. Fertil Steril. 2011;96:562–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Esposito K, Ciotola M, Giugliano F, et al. Quantitative sensory and autonomic testing in nondiabetic women with sexual dysfunction. J Sex Med. 2007;4:1367–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Lalos O, Kjellberg L, Lalos A. Urinary, climacteric and sexual symptoms 1 year after treatment of cervical cancer without brachytherapy. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol. 2009;30:269–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Chatwin NAM, Ribordy M, Givel JC. Clinical outcomes and quality of life after low anterior resection for rectal cancer. Eur J Surg. 2002;168:297–301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Varpe P, Huhtinen H, Rantala A, et al. Quality of life after surgery for rectal cancer with special reference to pelvic floor dysfunction. Color Dis. 2011;13:399–405.Google Scholar
  217. 217.
    Havenga K, Enker WE, McDermott K, et al. Male and female sexual and urinary function after total mesorectal excision with autonomic nerve preservation for carcinoma of the rectum. J Am Coll Surg. 1996;182:495–502.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Maas CP, Moriya Y, Steup WH, et al. A prospective study on radical and nerve-preserving surgery for rectal cancer in the Netherlands. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2000;26:751–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Maurer CA, Z’Graggen K, Renzulli P, et al. Total mesorectal excision preserves male genital function compared with conventional rectal cancer surgery. Br J Surg. 2001;88:1501–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Nesbakken A, Nygaard K, Bull-Njaa T, et al. Bladder and sexual dysfunction after mesorectal excision for rectal cancer. Br J Surg. 2000;87:206–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Pocard M, Zinzindohoue F, Haab F, et al. A prospective study of sexual and urinary function before and after total mesorectal excision with autonomic nerve preservation for rectal cancer. Surgery. 2002;131:368–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Akasu T, Sugihara K, Moriya Y. Male urinary and sexual functions after mesorectal excision alone or in combination with extended lateral pelvic lymph node dissection for rectal cancer. Ann Surg Oncol. 2009;16:2779–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Kneist W, Heintz A, Junginger T. Intraoperative identification and neurophysiologic parameters to verify pelvic autonomic nerve function during total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer. J Am Coll Surg. 2004;198:59–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Bregendahl S, Emmertsen KJ, Lindegaard JC, et al. Urinary and sexual dysfunction in women after resection with and without preoperative radiotherapy for rectal cancer: a population-based cross-sectional study. Color Dis. 2015;17:26–37.Google Scholar
  225. 225.
    Mari G, Costanzi A, Galfrascoli E, et al. Prospective evaluation of genito-urinary function after laparoscopic rectal resection in the elderly. Chir Buchar Rom. 2016;111:318–25.Google Scholar
  226. 226.
    Asoglu O, Matlim T, Karanlik H, et al. Impact of laparoscopic surgery on bladder and sexual function after total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer. Surg Endosc. 2009;23:296–303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Andersson J, Abis G, Gellerstedt M, et al. Patient-reported genitourinary dysfunction after laparoscopic and open rectal cancer surgery in a randomized trial (COLOR II). Br J Surg. 2014;101:1272–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Costanzi A, Rigamonti L, Mari GM, et al. A prospective video-controlled study of genito-urinary disorders in 35 consecutive laparoscopic TMEs for rectal cancer. Surg Endosc. 2015;29:1721–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Fang J-F, Wei B, Zheng Z-H, et al. Effect of intra-operative autonomic nerve stimulation on pelvic nerve preservation during radical laparoscopic proctectomy. Color Dis. 2015;17:O268–76.Google Scholar
  230. 230.
    Braendengen M, Tveit KM, Bruheim K, et al. Late patient-reported toxicity after preoperative radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy in nonresectable rectal cancer: results from a randomized Phase III study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2011;81:1017–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Arrellano-Valdez F, Urrutia-Osorio M, Arroyo C, et al. A comprehensive review of urologic complications in patients with diabetes. Springerplus. 2014;3:549.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Frimodt-Moller C. Diabetic cystopathy: epidemiology and related disorders. Ann Intern Med. 1980;92:318–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Beylot M, Marion D, Noel G. Ultrasonographic determination of residual urine in diabetic subjects: relationship to neuropathy and urinary tract infection. Diabetes Care. 1982;5:501–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Ghafoor A, Zaidi SMH, Moazzam A. Frequency of autonomic neuropathy in patients with erectile dysfunction in diabetes mellitus. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2015;27:653–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Pavy-Le Traon A, Fontaine S, Tap G, et al. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and other complications in type 1 diabetes. Clin Auton Res. 2010;20:153–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Pop-Busui R, Hotaling J, Braffett BH, et al. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy, erectile dysfunction and lower urinary tract symptoms in men with type 1 diabetes: findings from the DCCT/EDIC. J Urol. 2015;193:2045–51.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Han PY, Ezquerro R, Pan K, et al. Comorbidities associated with diabetic foot complications among Asian Americans in southern California. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2003;93:37–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Liu R-T, Chung M-S, Chuang Y-C, et al. The presence of overactive bladder wet increased the risk and severity of erectile dysfunction in men with type 2 diabetes. J Sex Med. 2012;9:1913–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Irwin DE, Milsom I, Reilly K, et al. Overactive bladder is associated with erectile dysfunction and reduced sexual quality of life in men. J Sex Med. 2008;5:2904–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Jacobson AM, Braffett BH, Cleary PA, et al. The long-term effects of type 1 diabetes treatment and complications on health-related quality of life: a 23-year follow-up of the Diabetes Control and Complications/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications cohort. Diabetes Care. 2013;36:3131–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Jacobson AM, Braffett BH, Cleary PA, et al. Relationship of urologic complications with health-related quality of life and perceived value of health in men and women with type 1 diabetes: the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Interventions and Complications (DCCT/EDIC) cohort. Diabetes Care. 2015;38:1904–12.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Wang CC, Chancellor MB, Lin JM, et al. Type 2 diabetes but not metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of lower urinary tract symptoms and erectile dysfunction in men aged <45 years. BJU Int. 2010;105:1136–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Wullner U, Schmitz-Hubsch T, Antony G, et al. Autonomic dysfunction in 3414 Parkinson’s disease patients enrolled in the German Network on Parkinson’s disease (KNP e.V.): the effect of ageing. Eur J Neurol. 2007;14:1405–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Sakakibara R, Shinotoh H, Uchiyama T, et al. Questionnaire-based assessment of pelvic organ dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease. Auton Neurosci Basic Clin. 2001;92:76–85.Google Scholar
  245. 245.
    Singer C, Weiner WJ, Sanchez-Ramos JR. Autonomic dysfunction in men with Parkinson’s disease. Eur Neurol. 1992;32:134–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Tsujimura A, Yamamoto Y, Sakoda S, et al. Finger taps and constipation are closely related to symptoms of overactive bladder in male patients with Parkinson’s disease. Int J Urol. 2014;21:69–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Spica V, Pekmezovic T, Svetel M, et al. Prevalence of non-motor symptoms in young-onset versus late-onset Parkinson’s disease. J Neurol. 2013;260:131–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Coyne KS, Sexton CC, Thompson C, et al. The impact of OAB on sexual health in men and women: results from EpiLUTS. J Sex Med. 2011;8:1603–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Heidler S, Mert C, Wehrberger C, et al. Impact of overactive bladder symptoms on sexuality in both sexes. Urol Int. 2010;85:443–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Wein AJ, Coyne KS, Tubaro A, et al. The impact of lower urinary tract symptoms on male sexual health: EpiLUTS. BJU Int. 2009;103:33–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    Amano T, Earle C, Imao T, et al. Are urge incontinence and aging risk factors of erectile dysfunction in patients with male lower urinary tract symptoms? Aging Male. 2016;19:54–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    Naya Y, Ochiai A, Soh J, et al. Association between ED and LUTS in Japanese motorcyclists. Int J Impot Res. 2008;20:574–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Dell’Atti L. Efficacy of Tadalafil once daily versus Fesoterodine in the treatment of overactive bladder in older patients. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2015;19:1559–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    Giuliano FA, Lamb J, Crossland A, et al. A placebo-controlled exploratory study investigating the efficacy and safety of the phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor UK-369,003 for the treatment of men with storage lower urinary tract symptoms associated with a clinical diagnosis of overactive bladder. BJU Int. 2010;106:666–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    Lombardi G, Mondaini N, Giubilei G, et al. Sacral neuromodulation for lower urinary tract dysfunction and impact on erectile function. J Sex Med. 2008;5:2135–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. 256.
    Cayan S, Yaman O, Orhan I, et al. Prevalence of sexual dysfunction and urinary incontinence and associated risk factors in Turkish women. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2016;203:303–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. 257.
    Jiann B-P, Su C-C, Yu C-C, et al. Risk factors for individual domains of female sexual function. J Sex Med. 2009;6:3364–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. 258.
    Salonia A, Zanni G, Nappi RE, et al. Sexual dysfunction is common in women with lower urinary tract symptoms and urinary incontinence: results of a cross-sectional study. Eur Urol. 2004;45:642–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. 259.
    Su C-C, Sun BY-C, Jiann B-P. Association of urinary incontinence and sexual function in women. Int J Urol. 2015;22:109–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    Coyne KS, Margolis MK, Jumadilova Z, et al. Overactive bladder and women’s sexual health: what is the impact? J Sex Med. 2007;4:656–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. 261.
    Nilsson M, Lalos O, Lindkvist H, et al. How do urinary incontinence and urgency affect women’s sexual life? Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2011;90:621–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. 262.
    Sen I, Onaran M, Tan MO, et al. Evaluation of sexual function in women with overactive bladder syndrome. Urol Int. 2007;78:112–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. 263.
    Oskay UY, Beji NK, Yalcin O. A study on urogenital complaints of postmenopausal women aged 50 and over. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2005;84:72–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. 264.
    Patel AS, O’Leary ML, Stein RJ, et al. The relationship between overactive bladder and sexual activity in women. Int Braz J Urol. 2006;32:77–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. 265.
    Sacco E, D’Addessi A, Racioppi M, et al. Bladder pain syndrome associated with highest impact on sexual function among women with lower urinary tract symptoms. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2012;117:168–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. 266.
    Cohen BL, Barboglio P, Gousse A. The impact of lower urinary tract symptoms and urinary incontinence on female sexual dysfunction using a validated instrument. J Sex Med. 2008;5:1418–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. 267.
    Serati M, Salvatore S, Uccella S, et al. Urinary incontinence at orgasm: relation to detrusor overactivity and treatment efficacy. Eur Urol. 2008;54:911–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. 268.
    Walters MD, Taylor S, Schoenfeld LS. Psychosexual study of women with detrusor instability. Obstet Gynecol. 1990;75:22–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. 269.
    Lowenstein L, Gruenwald I, Itskovitz-Eldor J, et al. Is there an association between female urinary incontinence and decreased genital sensation? Neurourol Urodyn. 2011;30:1291–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. 270.
    Waldinger MD, Venema PL, van Gils APG, et al. New insights into restless genital syndrome: static mechanical hyperesthesia and neuropathy of the nervus dorsalis clitoridis. J Sex Med. 2009;6:2778–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. 271.
    Hajebrahimi S, Azaripour A, Sadeghi-Bazargani H. Tolterodine immediate release improves sexual function in women with overactive bladder. J Sex Med. 2008;5:2880–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. 272.
    Chughtai B, Forde JC, Buck J, et al. The concomitant use of fesoterodine and topical vaginal estrogen in the management of overactive bladder and sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women. Post Reprod Health. 2016;22:34–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. 273.
    Musco S, Serati M, Lombardi G, et al. Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation improves female sexual function in women with overactive bladder syndrome. J Sex Med. 2016;13:238–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. 274.
    Parnell BA, Howard JFJ, Geller EJ. The effect of sacral neuromodulation on pudendal nerve function and female sexual function. Neurourol Urodyn. 2015;34:456–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. 275.
    Lombardi G, Mondaini N, Macchiarella A, et al. Clinical female sexual outcome after sacral neuromodulation implant for lower urinary tract symptom (LUTS). J Sex Med. 2008;5:1411–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. 276.
    Signorello D, Seitz CC, Berner L, et al. Impact of sacral neuromodulation on female sexual function and his correlation with clinical outcome and quality of life indexes: a monocentric experience. J Sex Med. 2011;8:1147–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. 277.
    Ingber MS, Ibrahim IA, Killinger KA, et al. Neuromodulation and female sexual function: does treatment for refractory voiding symptoms have an added benefit? Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2009;20:1055–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. 278.
    Swaminath PV, Ragothaman M, Koshy S, et al. Urogenital symptoms in Parkinson’s disease and multiple system atrophy-Parkinsonism: at onset and later. J Assoc Physicians India. 2010;58:86–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. 279.
    Calandra-Buonaura G, Guaraldi P, Sambati L, et al. Multiple system atrophy with prolonged survival: is late onset of dysautonomia the clue? Neurol Sci. 2013;34:1875–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. 280.
    Oertel WH, Wachter T, Quinn NP, et al. Reduced genital sensitivity in female patients with multiple system atrophy of parkinsonian type. Mov Disord. 2003;18:430–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. 281.
    Yamamoto T, Sakakibara R, Uchiyama T, et al. When is Onuf’s nucleus involved in multiple system atrophy? A sphincter electromyography study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2005;76:1645–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  282. 282.
    Castro N, Oliveira P, Freitas D, et al. Erectile dysfunction and HTLV-I infection: a silent problem. Int J Impot Res. 2005;17:364–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. 283.
    Oliveira P, Castro NM, Muniz AL, et al. Prevalence of erectile dysfunction in HTLV-1-infected patients and its association with overactive bladder. Urology. 2010;75:1100–3.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  284. 284.
    Berger Y, Blaivas JG, Oliver L. Urinary dysfunction in transverse myelitis. J Urol. 1990;144:103–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. 285.
    Erdogru T, Kocak T, Serdaroglu P, et al. Evaluation and therapeutic approaches of voiding and erectile dysfunction in neurological Behcet’s syndrome. J Urol. 1990;162:147–53.Google Scholar
  286. 286.
    Aziz NA, Anguelova GV, Marinus J, et al. Autonomic symptoms in patients and pre-manifest mutation carriers of Huntington’s disease. Eur J Neurol. 2010;17:1068–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. 287.
    Krhut J, Mazanec R, Seeman P, et al. Lower urinary tract functions in a series of Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy patients. Acta Neurol Scand. 2014;129:319–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. 288.
    Synofzik M, Soehn AS, Gburek-Augustat J, et al. Autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix Saguenay (ARSACS): expanding the genetic, clinical and imaging spectrum. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2013;8:41.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Waleed Altaweel
    • 1
  • Raouf Seyam
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of UrologyKing Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research CenterRiyadhSaudi Arabia

Personalised recommendations