Neurourology pp 299-302 | Cite as

Botulinum Toxin and the Bladder: Future Research Directions

  • Apostolos Apostolidis


As the method for intradetrusor injections of BoNT/A has not been standardised yet for maximization of efficacy and safety and while the injection technique remains minimally invasive with some assorted patient discomfort and potential transient complications from the injections [1], several injection-free techniques have or are being tested in preclinical and clinical studies [2]. Plain intravesical instillation of BoNT/A, intravesical delivery of BoNT/A via electromotive-drug administration or following bladder treatment with protamine sulphate or low-energy shock-waves, instillation of BoNT/A mixed with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), conjugated with liposomes or cationic peptides and complexed with thermosensitive hydrogel are some of the novel techniques under investigation [2]. Almost all techniques aim at increasing the toxin’s permeability via the urothelium.


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© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Apostolos Apostolidis
    • 1
  1. 1.Second Department of UrologyAristotle University of Thessaloniki, General Hospital ‘Papageorgiou’ThessalonikiGreece

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