Growth and differentiation factors as cancer therapeutics

  • Kapil Mehta
  • Robert K. Oldham


Differentiation therapy for the treatment of malignant disorders offers an attractive alternative to the conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy. The concept of differentiation therapy is based on the principle of ‘reform’ rather than ‘retaliation’. The perception that malignant cell results from a block in the differentiation pathway has led to a conceptual strategy to remove this block and to re-establish normal homeostasis. Differentiation therapy, in general, is associated with a growth arrest and long-term commitment of the cell to die via apoptosis or senescence. The conventional cytotoxic therapy contrasts with the differentiation therapy in that there is no attempt to restore normal homeostasis in the former case and it is accompanied by immediate cell death. Therefore, differentiation therapy may offer the opportunity for the use of the new, relatively nontoxic agents, as well as the use of current chemotherapeutic agents at doses significantly lower than those maximally tolerated. Combining low-dose of chemotherapy with one or more differentiation agents may also be of particular interest in the management of disorders resistant to conventional drug therapy.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Abe E, Miyaura C, Sakagami H, et al. Differentiation of mouse myeloid leukemia cells induced by 1alpha,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D3. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1981; 78: 4990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Abe E, Miyaura C, Tanaka H et al. 1 a25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 promotes fusion of mouse alveolar macrophages both by a direct mechanism and by a spleen cell-mediated indirect mechanism. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1983; 80: 5583.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Abe T, Murakami M, Sato T et al. Macrophage differentiation inducing factor from human monocytic cells is equivalent to murine leukemia inhibitory factor. J Biol Chem 1989; 264: 8941.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Abita J, Gauville C, Saal F. Characterization of insulin receptors in human promyelocytic leukemia cell HL-60. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1982; 106: 574.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Abita JP, Gauville C, Baltrand N. Loss of insulin receptor during differentiation of U937 cells. IRCS Med Sci 1983; 11: 390.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Aggarwal PP, Kohr WJ, Hass PE et al. Human tumor necrosis factor: production, purification and characterization. J Biol Chem 1985; 260: 2345.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Aglietta M, Stacchini A, Severino A et al. Interaction of transforming growth factor-beta 1 with hemopoietic growth factors in the regulation of human normal and leukemic myelopoiesis. Exp Hematol 1989; 17: 296.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Altucci L, Rossin A, Raffelsberger W et al. Retinoic acid induced apoptosis in leukemia cells is mediated by paracrine action of tumor-selective death ligand TRAIL Nat Med 2001; 7: 680.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Amento EP, Kurnick JT, Epstein A et al. Modulation of synovial cell products by a factor from a human cell line: T lymphocyte induction of a mononuclear cell factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1982; 79: 5307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Andreeff M, Kreis W, Miller W et al. Low-dose cytosinearabinoside (ARA-C) in acute non-lymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS): analysis of response and response mechanisms. Proc Annu Meet Am Soc Clin Oncol 1988; 7: A741.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Andreeff M, Stone R, Young C et al. Treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemia with hexamethylene bisacetamide. Blood 1990; 76(Suppl.): 251 a.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Arlin ZA, Mertelsman R, Berman E et al. 13-cis-Retinoic acid does not increase the true remission (induced by cytotoxic chemotherapy) in patients with chronic phase chronic myelogenous leukemia. J Clin Oncol 1985; 3: 473.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Asaoku H, Kawano M, Kwato K et al. Decrease in BSF-2/ IL-6 response in advanced cases of multiple myeloma. Blood 1988; 72: 429.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ascencao J, Kay NE, Earenfight-Engler T et al. Production of erythroid potentiating factor(s) by a human monocytic cell line. Blood 1981; 57: 170.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Aul C, Runde, Gattermann N. All-trans retinoic acid in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes: results of a pilot study. Blood 1993; 82: 2967.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Baccarani M, Zaccaria A, Bandini G et al. Low dose arbinosyl cytosine for treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes and subacute myeloid leukemia. Leuk Res 1983; 7: 539.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Baccarani M, Tura S. Differentiation of myeloid leukaemic cells: new possibilities for therapy. Br J Haematol 1979; 42: 485.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bagby GC, Dinarello CA, Neerhout RC et al. Interleukin 1- dependent paracrine granulopoiesis in chronic granulocytic leukemia of the juvenile type. J Clin Invest 1988; 82: 1430.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Balaban EP, Cox JV, Schneider NR et al. Treatment of ‘poor risk’ acute non-lymphocytic leukemia with continuously infused low-dose cytosine arabinoside. Am J Hematol 1988; 29: 79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Barbar KE, Crosier PS, Gillis S et al. Human granulocyte-macrophage progenitors and their sensitivity to cytotoxins: analysis by limiting dilution. Blood 1987; 70: 1773.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Barbar KE, Crosier PS, Watson JD. The differential inhibition of hemopoietic growth factor activity by cytotoxins and interferon-y. J Immunol 1987; 139: 1108.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bar-Shavit Z, Teitelbaum SL, Reitsma P et al. Induction of monocyte differentiation and bone resorption by 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D3. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1983; 80: 5907.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Baumann H, Wong GG. Hepatocyte-stimulating factor III shares structural and functional identity with leukemia-inhibitory factor. J Immunol 1989; 143: 1163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Beckman BS, Balin AK, Allen RG. Superoxide dismutase induces differentiation of Friend erythroleukemia cells. J Cell Physiol 1989; 139: 370.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Begley C, Metcalf D, Nicola N. Purified colony stimulating factors (G-CSF and GM-CSF) induce differentiation in human HL-60 leukemic cells with suppression of clonogenicity. Int J Cancer 1987; 39: 99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ben-Bassat I, Gale RP. New and evolving concepts in leukemia. Leukemia 1988; 2: 704.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bernal S, Chen L. Induction of cytoskeleton-associated proteins during differentiation of human myeloid leukemic cell lines. Cancer Res 1982; 421: 5106.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Besa EC, Abraham JL, Bartolomew MJ, Hizinski M, Nowell, PC. Treatment with 13-cis-retinoic acid in transfusion dependent patients with myelodysplastic syndrome and decreased toxicity with addition of alpha-tocopherol. Am J Med 1988; 89: 739.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Besa EC, Abraham JL, Nowell PC. Combinations of 13-cisretinoic acid (RA) and alpha-tocopherol (AT) for the chronic phase and addition of a-interferon ( IFN) for the transformed phase of myelodysplasia. Third Int Conf Prev Hum Cancer 1988: S4–13.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Blazsek I, Labat ML, Boule D et al. Endocrine switch in myeloid neoplasia? Proc Annu Meet Am Assoc Cancer Res 1989; 30: A928.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bleiberg I, Fabian I, Kantor S et al. The effect of 13-cisretinoic acid on hematopoiesis in human long-term bone marrow culture. Leuk Res 1988; 12: 545.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bloch A, Koeffier HP, Pierce GB et al. Meeting Report: Ninth Annual Sapporo Cancer Seminar on Cell Differentiation and Cancer Control. Cancer Res 1990; 50: 1346.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bodner AJ, Ting RC, Gallo RC. Induction of differentiation of human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60) by nucleosides and methotrexate. J Natl Cancer Inst 1981; 67: 1025.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Bougnoux P, Bovini E, Chang Z et al. Effect of interferon on phospholipid methylation by peripheral blood mononuclear cells. J Cell Biochem 1983; 20: 215.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bourantas KL, Tsiara S, Christou L Treatment of 34 patients with myelodysplastic syndromes with 13-cis retinoic acid. Eur J Haematol 1995; 55: 235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bradbury D, Bowen G, Kozlowski R et al. Endogenous interleukin-1 can regulate the autonomous growth of the blast cells of acute myeloblastic leukemia by inducing autocrine secretion of GM-CSF. Leukemia 1990; 4: 44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Breitman T, Collins S, Keene B. Terminal differentiation of human promyelocytic leukemia cells in primary culture in response to retinoic acid. Blood 1981; 57: 1000.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Broxmeyer H, Gentile G, Bognacki J et al. Lactoferrin, transferrin and acidic isoferritins: regulatory molecules with potential therapeutic value in leukemia. Blood Cells 1983; 9: 83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Broxmeyer HE, Williams DE, Lu L et al. The suppressive influence of human tumor necrosis factors on bone marrow hematopoietic progenitor cells from normal donors and patients with leukemia: synergism of tumor necrosis factor and interferon-y. J Immunol 1986; 136: 4487.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Bruno E, Hoffman R. Interacting cytokines regulate human megakaryocytopoiesis. Exp Hematol 1988; 16: 505.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Buick RN, Till JE, McCulloch EA. Colony assay for proliferative blast cells circulating in myeloblastic leukemia. Lancet 1977; 1: 862.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Buick RN, Chang LJ-A, Curtis JE et al. Self-renewal capacity of leukemic blast progenitor cells. Cancer Res 1981; 4: 4849.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Burger EH, Van Der Meer JWM, Van De Geuell JS et al. In vitro formation of osteoclasts from long-term cultures of bone marrow mononuclear phagocytes. J Exp Med 1982; 156: 1604.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Cashman JD, Eaves AC, Raines EW et al. Mechanisms that regulate the cell cycle status of very primitive hematopoietic cells in long-term marrow cultures. I. Stimulatory role of a variety of mesenchymal cell activators and inhibitory role of TGF-ß. 1990; 75: 96.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Casini T, Pelicci PG. A function of p21 during promyelocytic leukemia cell differentiation independent of CDK inhibition and cell cycle arrest. Oncogene 1999; 18: 3235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Castaigne S, Chomienne C, Daniel MT et al. All-trans retinoic acid as differentiation therapy for acute promyelocytic leukemia. I. Clinical results. Blood 1990; 76: 1704PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Castaigne S, Daniel MT, Tilly H et al. Does treatment with Ara-C in low dosage cause differentiation of leukemic cells? Blood 1983; 62: 85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Castro-Malaspina H, Rabellino EM, Yen A et al. Human megakaryocyte stimulation of proliferation of bone marrow fibroblasts. Blood 1981; 57: 781.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Chan CSP, Schechter GP. In vitro evidence for dose-dependent cytotoxicity as the predominant effect of low dose AraC on human leukemic and normal marrow cells. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1988; 23: 87.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Chen CP, Lee F. IL-6 is a differentiation factor for M1 and WEHI-3B myeloid leukemic cells. J Immunol 1989; 142: 1909.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Chen JD, Evans RM. A transcriptional co-repressor that interacts with nuclear hormone receptors. Nature 1995; 377: 454.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Chen JD, Umesono K, Evans RM. SMRT isoforms mediate repression and anti-repression of nuclear receptors heterodimers. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1996; 93: 7567.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Chen LL, Dean A, Jenkinson T et al. Effect of transforming growth factor-ß1 on proliferation and induction of hemoglobin accumulation in K-562 cells. Blood 1989; 74: 2368.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Chen ZX, Xue YQ, Zhang RI et al. A clinical and experimental study on all-trans retinoic acid-treated acute promyelocytic leukemia patients. Blood 1991; 78: 1413–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Cheng GYM, Kelleher CA, Miyauchi J et al. Structure and expression of genes of GM-CSF and G-CSF in blast cells from patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia. Blood 1988; 71: 204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Chenu C, Pfeilschifter J, Mundy GR et al. Transforming growth factor beta inhibits formation of osteoclast-like cells in long-term human marrow cultures. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1988; 85: 5683.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Christman JK, Mendelsohn N, Herzog D et al. Effect of 5- azacytidine on differentiation and DNA methylation in human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60). Cancer Res 1983; 43: 763.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Clark RE, Ismail SA, Jacobs A et al. A randomized trial of 13-cis-retinoic acid with or without cytosine arabinoside in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. Br J Haematol 1987; 66: 77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Clark RE, Smith SA, Jacobs A. Myeloid surface antigen abnormalities in myelodysplasia: relation to prognosis and modification by 13-cis retinoic acid. J Clin Pathol 1987; 40: 652.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Cobb MA, Hseuh W, Pachman L et al. Prostaglandin biosynthesis by a human macrophage-like cell line, U937. J Reticuloendothel Soc 1983; 33: 197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Colbert D, Fontana J, Bode U et al. Changes in the translational activity of polyadenylated messenger RNA of HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells associated with myeloid or macrophage differentiation. Cancer Res 1983; 43: 229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Collins SJ, Ruscetti FW, Gallagher RE et al. Normal functional characteristics of cultured human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60) after induction of differentiation by DMSO. J Exp Med 1979; 149: 969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Collins S, Bodner A, Gallo RC et al. Induction of morphological and functional differentiation of human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60) by compounds which induce differentiation of murine leukemia cells. Int J Cancer 1980; 25: 213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Conley BA, Forrest A, Egorin MJ et al. Phase I trial using adaptive control dosing of hexamethylene bisacetamide (NSC 95580). Cancer Res 1989; 49: 3436.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Cooper PC, Metcalf D, Burgess AW. Biochemical and functional characterization of mature progeny purified from a myelomonocytic leukemia. Leuk Res 1982; 6: 313.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Cooperberg AA, Singer OP. Reversible myelofibrosis due to vitamin D deficiency rickets. Can Med Assoc J 1980; 94: 392.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Cozzolino F, Rubartelli A, Aldinucci D et al. Interleukin 1 as an autocrine growth factor for acute myeloid leukemia cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1989; 86: 2369.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Curtis JE, Messner HA, Minden MD et al. Improved maintenance therapy for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) using 13-cis-retinoic acid-containing regimen. Proc Annu Meet Am Assoc Cancer Res 1989; 30: A1066.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Dayton ET, Perussia G, Trinchiere G. Correlation between differentiation, expression of monocyte-specific antigens, and cytotoxic functions in human promyelocytic cell lines treated with leukocyte conditioned media. J Immunol 1983; 3: 1120.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    De Botton S, Dombret H, Sanz M et al. Incidence, clinical features, and outcome of all-trans retinoic acid syndrome in 413 cases of newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukemia. Blood 1998; 92: 2712.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Degos L, Castaigne S, Chomienne C et al. Therapeutic trials of acute myeloid leukemia and of myelodysplastic syndromes by LD-ARA C and treatment of promyelocytic leukemia by retinoic acid. In: Waxman S, Ross GB, Takaku F, eds. The Status of Differentiation Therapy of Cancer. Serono Symposia. New York: Raven Press, 1988; 45: 361.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Degos L, Dombret H, Chomienne C. et al. All-trans-retinoic acid as a differentiating agent in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia. Blood 1995; 85: 2643Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Delwel R, Salem M, Pellens C et al. Growth regulation of human acute myeloid leukemia: effects of five recombinant hematopoietic factors in a serum-free culture system. Blood 1988; 72: 1944.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    DiGiovanna MP, Sartorelli AC. Myeloid differentiation-associated protein tyrosine kinase activity in a murine monomyelocytic leukemia cell line. Proc Annu Meet Am Assoc Cancer Res 1989; 30: A212.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Dooley DC, Law P. Influence of transforming growth factor-beta one and T cells on human hematopoietic progenitor cells. Exp Hematol 1988; 16: 438.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Douer D, Estey E, Santillana S et al. Treatment of newly diagnosed and relapsed acute promyelocytic leukemia with intravenous liposomal all-trans retinoic acid. Blood 2001; 97: 73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Douer D, Koeffier HP. Retinoic acid inhibition of the clonal growth of human myeloid leukemia cells. J Clin Invest 1982; 69: 277.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Douer D, Koeffier HP. Retinoic acid enhances growth of human early erythroid progenitor cells in vitro. J Clin Invest 1982; 60: 1039.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Doyle M, Brindley L, Kawasaki E et al. High level human interleukin 1 production by a hepatoma cell line. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1985; 130: 768.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Duhrsen U. In vitro growth patterns and autocrine production of hemopoietic colony stimulating factors: analysis of leukemic populations arising in irradiated mice from cells of an injected factor-dependent continuous cell line. Leukemia 1988; 2: 334.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Duhrsen U, Metcalf D. A model system for leukemic transformation of immortalized hemopoietic cells in irradiated recipient mice. Leukemia 1988; 2: 329.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Duncombe AS, Heslop HE, Turner M et al. Tumor necrosis factor mediates autocrine growth inhibition in a chronic leukemia. J Immunol 1989; 143: 3828.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Egorin MJ, Sigman LM, Van-Echo DA et al. Phase I clinical and pharmacokinetic study of hexamethylene bisacetamide (NSC 95580) administered as a five-day continuous infusion. Cancer Res 1987; 47: 617.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Eisman JA, Martin TJ, MacIntyre I et al. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor in a cultured human breast cancer cell line (MCF 7 cells). Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1980; 93: 9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Eliason JF, Vassalli P. Inhibition of hemopoiesis in murine marrow cell cultures by recombinant murine tumor necrosis factor ß: evidence for long-term effects on stromal cells. Blood Cells 1988; 14: 339.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Estey EH, Giles FJ, Kantarjian H et al.. Molecular remissions induced by liposomal-encapsulated all-trans retinoic acid in newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukemia. Blood 1999; 94: 2230.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Estey E, Thall PF, Kantarijian H et al. Treatment of newly diagnosed acute myelogenous leukemia with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) before and during continuous infusion high-dose ara-C + daunorubicin: comparison to patients treated without GM-CSF. Blood 1992; 79: 2246.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Estey E, Thall PF, Mehta K et al. Alterations in tretinoin pharmacokinetics following administration of liposomal all-trans retinoic acid. Blood 1996; 87: 3650.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Fearon ER, Burke PJ, Schiffer CA et al. Differentiation of leukemic cells to polymorphonuclear leukocytes in patients with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia. N Engl J Med 1986; 315: 15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Fenaux P, Chomienne C. Biology and treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia. Curr Opin Oncol 1996; 8: 3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Fenaux P, Le Dely MC, Castaigne S et al. Effect of all-trans retinoic acid in newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukemia: results of a multicenter randomized trial. Blood 1993; 82: 3241–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Fenaux P, Chomienne C, Degos L. All trans-retinoic acid and chemotherapy in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia. Semin Hematol. 2001; 38: 13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Ferrero D, Bruno B, Pregno P et al. Combined differentiating therapy for myelodysplastic syndromes: a phase II study. Leuk Res 1996; 20: 867.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Ferrero D, Tarella C, Gallo E et al. Terminal differentiation of the human promyelocyte leukemia cell line, HL-60, in the absence of cell proliferation. Cancer Res 1982; 42: 4421.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Fialkow PJ, Singer JW, Adamson JW et al. Acute nonlymphocytic leukemia: heterogeneity of stem cell origin. Blood 1981; 57: 1068.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Fibach E, Peled T, Rachmilewitz EA. Self-renewal and commitment to differentiation of human leukemic promyelocytic cells (HL-60). J Cell Physiol 1982; 113: 152.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Filmus J, Buick RN. Relationship of c-myc expression to differentiation and proliferation of HL-60 cells. Cancer Res 1985; 45: 822.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Fitchen J, LeFevre C, Ferrone S et al. Expression of Ia-like and HLA-A,B, antigens on human multipotential hematopoietic progenitor cells. Blood 1982; 59: 188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Fontana JA, Wright DG, Schifman E et al. Development of chemotactic responsiveness in myeloid precursor cells: studies with a human leukemia cell line. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1980; 77: 3664.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Franpton RJ, Suva LJ, Eisman JA et al. Presence of 1,25- dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptors in established human cancer cell lines in culture. Cancer Res 1982; 42: 1116.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Franceschi RT. Interaction of the 1-alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor with RNA and synthetic polyribonucleotides. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1984; 81: 2337.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Francis GE, Berney JJ, North PS et al. Evidence for the involvement of DNA topoisomerase II in neutrophil-granulocyte differentiation. Leukemia 1987; 1: 653.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Francis GE, Mufti GJ, Knowles SM et al. Differentiation induction in myelodysplasia and acute myeloid leukemia: use of synergistic drug combinations. Leuk Res 1987; 11: 971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Francis GE, Gray DA, Berney JJ et al. Role of ADP-ribosyl transferase in the differentiation of human granulocyte-macrophage progenitors to the macrophage lineage. Blood 1983; 62: 1055.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Freake HC, Marcocci C, Iwasaki J et al. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 specifically binds to a human breast cancer cell line (T47D) and stimulates growth. Biochem Biophy Res Commun 1981; 101: 1131.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Frankel SR, Eardley A, Lauwers G et al. The ‘retinoic acid syndrome’ in acute promyelocytic leukemia. Ann Intern Med 1992; 117: 292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Gabrilove JL, Welte K, Li L et al. Constitutive production of a leukemia differentiation, colony stimulating, erythroid burst promoting and pluripoietic factor by a human hepatoma cell line: characterization of the leukemia differentiation factor. Blood 1985; 66: 407.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Gabrilove JL, Welte K, Harris P et al. Pluripoietin alpha: a second human hematopoietic colony-stimulating factor produced by the human bladder carcinoma cell line 5637. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1986; 83: 2478.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Gahmberg CG, Nilsson K, Anderson LC. Specific changes in the surface of glycoprotein pattern of human promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL-60 during morphologic and functional differentiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1979; 76: 4087.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Gallagher R, Collins S, Trujillo J et al. Characterization of the continuous, differentiating myeloid cell line (HL-60) from a patient with acute promyelocytic leukemia. Blood 1979; 54: 713.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Gallagher JC, Jerpbak CM, Jee WSS et al. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3: short-and long-term effects on bone and calcium metabolism in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1982; 79: 3325.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Gallagher RE, Bilello PA, Ferrari AC et al. Characterization of differentiation-inducer-resistant HL-60 cells. Leuk Res 1985; 9: 967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Gallo RC, Breitman TR, Ruscelli FW. Proliferation and differentiation of human myeloid leukemia cell lines in vitro. In: Moore MAS, ed. Maturation Factors in Cancer. New York: Raven Press, 1987: 255.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Ganser A, Seipelts G, Verbeek W et al. Effects of combination therapy with all-trans-retinoic acid and recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. Leukemia 1994; 8: 369.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Garewal HS, List A, Meyskens F et al. Phase II trial of fenretinide [N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) retinamide] in myelodysplasia: possible retinoid-induced disease acceleration. Leuk Res 1989; 13: 339.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Gasson J, Weisbart R, Kaufman S et al. Purified human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor: direct action on neutrophils. Science 1984; 226: 1339.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Gately CL, Wahl SM, Oppenheim J. Characterization of a hydrogen peroxide-potentiating factor, a lymphokine that increases the capacity of human monocytes and monocyte-like cell lines to produce hydrogen peroxide. J Immunol 1983; 131: 2853.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Gearing DP, Gough NM, King JA. Molecular cloning and expression of cDNA encoding a murine myeloid leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF). EMBO J 1987; 6: 3995.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Geissler K, Tricot G, Leemhus T et al. Differentiation-inducing effect of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor a and y-interferon in vitro on blast cells from patients with acute myeloid leukemia and myeloid blast crisis of chronic myeloid leukemia. Cancer Res 1989; 49: 3057.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Gianni M, Kalac Y, Ponzanelli I et al. Tyrosine kinase inhibitor ST1571 potentiates the pharmacological activity of retinoic acid in acute promyelocytic leukemia cells: effect on the downregulation of RARa and PML-RARa. Blood 2001; 97: 3234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Gitter BD, Finn OJ, Metzgar RS. Cytofluorometric isolation of I937, an Ia antigen-bearing variant of the Ia-negative human monocytic cell line U937. J Immunol 1985; 134: 280.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Godard A, Gascan H, Naulet J et al. Biochemical characterization and purification of HILDA, a human lymphokine active on eosinophils and bone marrow cells. Blood 1988; 71: 1618.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Goey H, Keller JR, Jansen R et al. Antiproliferative effects of transforming growth factor beta 1 for murine tumors and hematopoietic progenitor cells. Proc Annu Meet Am Assoc Cancer Res 1989; 30: A1295.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Goey H, Keller JR, Back T et al. Inhibition of early murine hemopoietic progenitor cell proliferation after in vivo locoregional administration of transforming growth factor-ß1. J Immunol 1989; 143: 877.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Gold EJ, Mertelsmann R, Itri LM et al. Phase I clinical trial of 13-cis-retinoic acid in myelodysplastic syndrome. Cancer Treat Rep 1983; 11: 981.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Goodman RB, Strieter RM, Martin DP et al. Inflammatory cytokines in patients with persistence of the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1996; 1 54: 602.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Gough NM, Gearing DP, King JA et al. Molecular cloning and expression of the human homologue of the murine gene encoding myeloid leukemia-inhibitory factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1988; 85: 2623.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Greenberg BR, Durie BG, Barnett TC, Meyskens F. Phase I/II study of 13-cis-retinoic acid in myelodysplastic syndrome. Cancer Treat Rep 1985; 69: 1369.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Griffin JD. Role of colony stimulating factors in the biology of leukemia. Exp Hematol 1988; 16: 417.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Griffin J, Munroe D, Major P et al. Induction of differentiation of human myeloid leukemia cells by inhibitors of DNA synthesis. Exp Hematol 1982; 9: 774.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Griffin JD, Rambaldi A, Vellenga E et al. Secretion of interleukin-1 by acute myeloblastic leukemia cells in vitro induces endothelial cells to secrete colony stimulating factors. Blood 1987; 70: 1218.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Grosso LE, Pitot HC. Transcriptional regulation of c-myc during chemically induced differentiation of HL-60 cultures. Cancer Res 1985; 45: 847.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Guan XP, Fujii Y, Hromchak RA et al. Synergistic induction of ML-1 human myeloblastic leukemia cell differentiation by combinations of 12–0-tetradecanoyl-phorbol 13- acetate (TPA) with transforming growth factor (TGF-beta) or with human tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha). Proc Annu Meet Am Assoc Cancer Res 1989; 30: A175.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Guernsey DL, Yen A. Retinoic-acid-induced modulation of c-myc not dependent on its continued presence: possible role in precommitment for HL-60 cells. Int J Cancer 1988; 42: 576.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Guyre PM, Morganelli PM, Miller R. Recombinant immune interferon increases IgG FcR receptors on cultured human mononuclear phagocytes. J Clin Invest 1983; 72: 393.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Hagenbeek A, Sizoo W, Lowenberg B. Treatment of acute myelocytic leukemia with low dose cytosine arabinoside: results of a pilot study in four patients. Leuk Res 1983; 7: 443.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Hampson J, Ponting ILO, Cook N et al. The effects of TGF beta on haemopoietic cells. Growth Factors 1988; 1: 193.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Hansen CM, Binderup L, Hamberg KJ, Carlberg C. Vitamin D and cancer: effects of 1,25-(OH)2 D3 and its analogs on growth control and tumorigenesis. Front Biosci 2001; 6: 820.Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Hansen F. Hemopoietic growth and inhibitory factors in treatment of malignancies. Acta Oncol 1995; 34: 453–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Hapel AJ, Vande Woude G, Campbell HD et al. Generation of an autocrine leukemia using a retroviral expression vector carrying the interleukin-3 gene. Lymphokine Res 1986; 5: 249.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Harris PE, Ralph P, Litcofsky P et al. Distinct activities of interferon-gamma, lymphokine and cytokine differentiation inducing factors acting on the human monoblastic leukemia cell line U937. Cancer Res 1985; 45: 9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Harris PE, Ralph P, Gabrilove J et al. Broad spectrum induction by cytokine factors and limited induction by gamma interferon of differentiation in the human promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL-60. Cancer Res 1985; 45: 3090.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Hartman D, Sheridan AP, Moore MAS. Effects of 1,25(OH)2 D3, dexamethasone and cytoxan on the survival of leukemic (WEHI-3B(D+) Balb/c mice (Unpublished observation, 1987 ).Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Hashimoto Y, Kagechika H, Shudo K. Expression of retinoic acid receptor genes and ligand-binding selectivity of retinoic acid recptors. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1990; 166: 1300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Hassan HT, Rees JKH. Triple combination of retinoic acid + naclacinomycin A + dimethylformamide induces differentiation of human acute myeloid leukaemic blasts in primary culture. Anticancer Res 1989; 9: 647.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Hast R, Axdorph S, Lauren L et al. Absent clinical effects of retinoic acid and isorethinoin treatment in the myelodysplastic syndrome. Hematol Oncol 1989; 7: 297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Hattori T, Pack M, Bougnoux P et al. Interferon-induced differentiation of U937 cells. J Clin Invest 1983; 72: 237.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Haussler MR, Baylink DJ, Hughes MR et al. Assay of 1- alpha 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3: physiological and pathological modulation of circulating hormone levels. Clin Endocrinol 1979; 5: 157.Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Hayashi M, Okabe J, Hozumi M. Sensitization of resistant myeloid leukemia clone cells by anti-cancer drugs to factor-stimulating differentiation. Gann 1979; 70: 235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Hayashi SI, Gimble JM, Henley A et al. Differential effects of TGF01 on lympho-hemopoiesis in long-term bone marrow cultures. Blood 1989; 74: 1711.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Hellstrom E, Robert KH, Gahrton G et al. Therapeutic effects of low-dose cytosine arabinoside, alpha-interferon, alpha-hydroxyvitamin D3 and retinoic acid in acute leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes. Eur J Haematol 1988; 40: 449.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Hellstrom E, Robert KH, Samuelsson J et al. Treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes with retinoic acid and 1 alphahydroxy-vitamin D4 in combination with low dose ara-C is not superior to ara-C alone. Results from a randomized study. The Scandinavian Myelodysplasia Group (SMG). Eur J Haematol 1990; 45: 255.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Hemmi H, Breitman TR. Combinations of recombinant human interferons and retinoic acid synergistically induce differentiation of the human promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL-60. Blood 1987; 69: 501.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Hemmi H, Nakamura T, Shimizu Y et al. Identification of components of differentiation-inducing activity of human T-cell lymphoma cells by induction of differentiation in human myeloid leukemia cells. J Natl Cancer Inst 1989; 81: 952.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Hill R, Warren K, Stenberg P et al. Purified human recombinant IL-6 stimulates murine megakaryocytopoiesis and increases platelet levels. Blood 1989; 74 (Suppl. 1): 207 (abstract).Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Hilton DJ, Nicola NA, Metcalf D. Specific binding of murine leukemia inhibitory factor to normal and leukemic monocytic cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1988; 85: 5971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Hino M, Tojo A, Miyazono K et al. Effects of type ß transforming growth factors on haematopoietic progenitor cells. Br J Haematol 1988; 70: 143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Hirano T, Yasukawa K, Harada H et al. Complementary DNA for a novel human interleukin (BSF-2) that induces B lymphocytes to produce immunoglobulin. Nature 1986; 324: 73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Hittelman WN, Agbor P, Petkovic I et al. Detection of leukemic clone maturation in vivo by premature chromosome condensation. Blood 1988; 72: 1950.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Ho AD, Martin H, Knauf W et al. Combination of low dose cytarabine and 13-cis retinoic acid in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes. Leuk Res 1987; 11: 1041.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Hoang T, Haman A, Goncalves O et al. Interleukin-6 enhances growth factor-dependent proliferation of the blast cells of acute myeloblastic leukemia. Blood 1988; 72: 823.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Hoang T, Haman A, Goncalves O et al. Interleukin 1 enhances growth factor dependent proliferation of the clonogenic cells in acute myeloblastic leukemia and of normal human primitive hemopoietic precursors. J Exp Med 1988; 168: 463.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Hoang T, Levy B, Onetto N et al. Tumor necrosis factor a stimulates the growth of the clonogenic cells of acute myeloblastic leukemia in synergy with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. J Exp Med 1989; 170: 15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Hoffman SJ, Robinson WA. Use of differentiation-inducing agents in the myelodysplastic syndrome and acute nonlymphocytic leukemia. Am J Hematol 1988; 28: 124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Hofmann WK, Ganser A, Ottmann OG et al. All-transretinoic acid, interferon-a, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor as combination therapy in patients with low risk myelodysplastic syndromes. Blood. 1997; 90 (Suppl. 1); 366 (abstract).Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Homma Y, Hozumi M, Abe E et al. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 prolong survival time of mice inoculated with myeloid leukemia cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1983; 80: 201.Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Hossfeld DK, Weh H-J, Kleeberg UR. Low dose cytarabine: chromosomal findings suggesting its cytostatic as well as differentiating effect. Leuk Res 1985; 9: 329.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Housset M, Daniel MT, Degos L. Small doses of ARA-C in the treatment of acute myeloid leukaemia: differentiation of myeloid leukaemia cells? Br J Haematol 1982; 51: 125.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Hozumi M. Fundamentals of chemotherapy of myeloid leukemia by induction of leukemia cell differentiation. Adv Cancer Res 1983; 38: 121.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Huang M, Chen S, Chi J-R et al. Use of all trans-retinoic acid in treatment of APL. Blood 1988; 72: 567.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Huang ME, Ye YC, Chen SR. All-trans retinoic acid with or without low dose cytosine arabinoside in acute promyelocytic leukemia. Report of 6 cases. Clin Med J 1987; 100: 949.Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    Ikebuchi K, Ihle JN, Hirai Y et al. Synergistic factors for stem cell proliferation: further studies of the target stem cells and the mechanism of stimulation by interleukin-1, interleukin-6, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Blood 1988; 72: 2007.Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Ishibashi T, Miller SL, Burstein SA. Type ß transforming growth factor is a potent inhibitor of murine megakaryocytopoiesis in vitro. Blood 1987; 69: 1737.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Ishibashi T, Kimura H, Shkiama Y et al. Thrombopoietic effect of interleukin 6 (IL-6) in vivo in mice: comparison of the action of erythropoietin (Epo) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in combination with IL-6 on thrombocytopoiesis. Blood 1989; 74 (Suppl. 1): 18 (abstract).Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Iwasaki Y, Iwasaki J, Feake HC. Growth inhibition of human breast cancer cells induced by calcitonin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1983; 110: 235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Jetten AM. Action of retinoids and phorbol esters on cell growth and the binding of epidermal growth factor. Ann NY Acad Sci 1981; 119: 200.Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    Kahn AJ, Simmons DJ. Monocyte origin of osteoclasts. Nature 1975; 258: 325.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Kahn AJ, Stewart CC, Teitelbaum SL. Contact mediated bone resorption by human monocytes in vitro. Science 1978; 199: 988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Kamijo R, Takeda K, Nagumo M et al. Effects of combinations of transforming growth factor-ß1 and tumor necrosis factor on induction of differentiation of human myelogenous leukemic cell lines. J Immunol 1990; 144: 1311.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Kaufman DC, Baer MR, Gao X et al. Enhanced expression of the granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor gene in acute myeloblastic leukemia cells following in vitro blast cell enrichment. Blood 1988; 72: 1329.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Keller JR, Mantel C, Sing GK et al. Transforming growth factor beta 1 selectively regulates early murine hematopoietic progenitors and inhibits the growth of IL-3-dependent myeloid leukemia cell lines. J Exp Med 1988; 168: 737.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Keller JR, Sing GK, Ellingsworth LR et al. Transforming growth factor beta: possible roles in the regulation of normal and leukemic hematopoietic cell growth. J Cell Biochem 1989; 39: 175.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Kendrup G, Benedix-Hansen K, Pedersen B, Ellegaaard J. 13-Cis-retinoic acid treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes. Leuk Res 1987; 11: 7.Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    Kishimoto T. The biology of interleukin-6. J Am Soc Hematol 1989; 74: 1.Google Scholar
  185. 185.
    Kini AR, Peterson LC, Tallman MS, Lingen MW. Angiogenesis in acute promyelocytic leukemia: inhibition by vascular endothelial growth factor and inhibition by all trans retinoic acid. Blood 2001; 97: 3919.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Kizaki M, Norman AW, Bishop JE et al. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor RNA: expression in hematopoietic cells. Blood 1991; 71: 1238–47.Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    Klien B, Zhang XG, Jourdan M et al. Paracrine rather than autocrine regulation of myeloma-cell growth and differentiation by interleukin-6. Blood 1989; 73: 517.Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    Klijn JGM, Berns PMJJ, Schmitz PIM, Foekens JA. The clinical significance of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) in human breast cancer: a review on 5232 patients. Endoc Rev 1992; 13: 3–17.Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    Koeffier HP. Induction of differentiation of human acute myelogenous leukemia cells: therapeutic implications. Blood 1983; 62: 709.Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    Koeffier H, Bar-Eli M, Territo M. Phorbol ester effect on differentiation of human myeloid leukemia cell lines blocked at different stages of maturation. Cancer Res 1981; 41: 919.Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    Koeffier HP, Amatruda T, Ikekawa N et al. Induction of macrophage differentiation of human normal and leukemic myeloid stem cells by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and its fluorinated analogues. Cancer Res 1984; 44: 5624.Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    Koeffier HP, Kirfi K, Itri L. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D-3: in vivo and in vitro effects on human preleukemic and leukemic cells. Cancer Treat Rep 1985; 69: 1399.Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    Koeffier HP, Yelton L, Prokocimer L et al. Study of the differentiation of fresh myelogenous leukemic cells by compounds that induce a human promyelocytic leukemic cell line (HL-60) to differentiate. Leuk Res 1985; 9: 73.Google Scholar
  194. 194.
    Koeffier HP, Tobler A, Munker R. Tumor necrosis factor: role in normal and abnormal hematopoiesis. In: Gale RP, Golde DW, eds. Recent Advances in Leukemia and Lymphoma. UCLA Symposia on Molecular and Cellular Biology, New Series, 1987; 61: 433.Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    Koeffier HP, Heitjan D, Mertelsmann R et al. Randomized study of 13-cis-retinoic acid v placebo in the myelodysplastic disorders. Blood 1988; 71: 703.Google Scholar
  196. 196.
    Kohlhepp EA, Condon ME, Hamburger AW. Recombinant human interferon alpha enhancement of retinoic-acid-induced differentiation of HL-60 cells. Exp Hematol 1987; 15: 414.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Koike K, Nakahata T, Takagi M et al. Synergism of BSF-2/ interleukin 6 and interleukin 3 on development of multipotential hemopoietic progenitors in serum-free culture. J Exp Med 1988; 168: 879.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Kouzarides T. Histone acetylases and deacetylases in cell proliferation. Curr Opin Genet Dev 1999; 9: 40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Kuribayashi T, Tanaka H, Abe E et al. Functional defect of variant clones of a human myeloid leukemia cell line (HL-60) resistant to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Endocrinology 1983; 113: 1992.Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    Kurland JI, Pelus LM, Ralph P et al. Induction of prostaglandin E synthesis in normal and neoplastic macrophages: role for colony-stimulating factor(s) distinct from myeloid progenitor cell proliferation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1979; 76: 2326.Google Scholar
  201. 201.
    Kurzrock R, Estey E, Talpaz. M. All-trans retinoic acid: tolerance and biological effect in myelodysplastic syndrome. J Clin Oncol 1993; 11: 1489.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Lang R, Metcalf N, Gough N et al. Expression of a hemopoietic growth factor cDNA in a factor-dependent cell line results in autonomous growth and tumorigenicity. Cell 1985; 43: 531.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Largman C, Detmer K, Corral JC et al. Expression of retinoic acid receptor alpha MRNA in human leukemia cells. Blood 1989; 74: 99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Larrick JW, Ficher DG, Anderson SJ et al. Characterization of a human macrophage-like cell line stimulated in vitro: a model of macrophage functions. J Immunol 1980; 125: 6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Leoni F, Ciolli S, Longo G et al. 13-Cis-retinoic acid treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes. Acta Haematol 1988; 80: 8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Ley TJ, DeSimone J, Noguchi CT et al. 5-Azacytidine increases y globin synthesis and reduces the proportion of dense cells in patients with sickle-cell anemia. Blood 1983; 62: 370.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Lian Z, Wang L, Yamaga S et al. Genomic and proteomic analysis of the myeloid differentiation program. Blood 2001; 98: 513.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Lin BC, Hong SH, Krig S et al. A conformational switch in nuclear hormone receptors is involved in coupling hormone binding to corepressor release. Mol Cell Biol 1997; 17: 6131.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Lin J, Sartorelli AC. Stimulation by interferon of the differentiation of human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells produced by retinoid acid and actinomycin D. J Interferon Res 1987; 7: 379.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Lin FK, Suggs S, Lin C-H et al. Cloning and expression of the human erythropoietin gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1985; 82: 7580–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Lindemann W-D, Ludwig W, Oster R. High-level secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha contributes to hematopoietic failure in hairy cell leukemia. Blood 1989; 73: 880.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Liu T-X, Zhang J-W, Tao J et al. Gene expression network underlying retinoic acid-induced differentiation of acute promyelocytic leukemia cells. Blood 2000; 96: 1496.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Lombardo FA, Ward FT, Chun HG et al. Phase I trial of oral hemamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA). Proc Annu Meet Am Soc Clin Oncol 1989; 8: A297.Google Scholar
  214. 214.
    Lotem J, Sachs L. Different blocks in the differentiation of myeloid leukemic cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1974; 71: 3507.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Lotem J, Sachs L. In vivo control of differentiation of myeloid leukemic cells by cyclosporine A and recombinant interleukin-1ß. Blood 1988; 72: 1595.Google Scholar
  216. 216.
    Lotem J, Sachs L. Indirect induction of differentiation of normal and leukemic myeloid cells by recombinant interleukin 1. Leuk Res 1989; 13: 13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Lotem J, Sachs L. Hematopoietic cytokines inhibit apoptosis induced by transforming growth factor ß1 and cancer chemotherapy compounds in myeloid leukemic cells. Blood 1992; 80: 1750.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Lotem J, Lipton J, Sachs L. Separation of different molecular forms of macrophage-and granulocyte-inducing proteins for normal and leukemic myeloid cells. Int J Cancer 1980; 25: 763.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Lotem J, Berrebi A, Sachs L. Screening for induction of differentiation and toxicity to blast cells by chemotherapeutic compounds in human myeloid leukemia. Leuk Res 1985; 9: 249.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Lowenberg B, Salem M, Delwel R. Effects of recombinant multi-CSF, GM-CSF, G-CSF and M-CSF on the proliferation and maturation of human AML in vitro. Blood Cells 1988; 14: 539.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Lowe DG, Wylla N. Bombara M et al. Genomic cloning and heterologous expression of human differentiation-stimulating factor. DNA 1989; 8: 351.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Lu L, Broxmeyer HE, Pelus LM et al. Detection of Luxolfast-blue positive cells in human promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL-60. Exp Hematol 1982; 9: 887.Google Scholar
  223. 223.
    Lu L, Welte K, Gabrilove JL et al. Effects of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor a, recombinant human y-interferon, and prostaglandin E on colony formation of human hematopoietic progenitor cells stimulated by natural human pluripotent colony-stimulating factor, pluripoietin a, and recombinant erythropoietin in serum-free cultures. Cancer Res 1986; 46: 4357.Google Scholar
  224. 224.
    MacDonald PN, Baudino TA, Tokumaru H et al. Vitamin D receptor and nuclear receptor coactivators: crucial interactions in vitamin D-mediated transcription. Steroids 2001: 66: 171.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Maekawa T, Metcalf D. Clonal suppression of HL-60 and U937 cells by recombinant human leukemia inhibitory factor in combination with GM-CSF or G-CSF. Leukemia 1989; 3: 270.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Majeska RJ, Rodan GA. The effect of 1,25(OH)2 D3 on alkaline phosphatase in osteoblastic osteosarcoma cells. J Biol Chem 1982; 257: 3362.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Mangelsdorf DJ, Kliewer SA, Kakizuka A et al. Retinoid receptors. Recent Prog Hormone Res 1993; 48: 99.Google Scholar
  228. 228.
    Mangelsdorf DJ, Koeffier HP, Donaldson CA et al. 1,25- Dihydroxyvitamin D3-induced differentiation in a human promyelocytic leukemia cell line (HL-60): receptor-mediated maturation to macrophage-like cells. J Cell Biol 1984; 98: 391.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Manloagas SC, Haussler MR, Deftos LJ. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor-like macromolecule in rat osteogenic sarcoma cell lines. J Biol Chem 1980; 255: 4414.Google Scholar
  230. 230.
    March C, Mosley B, Larsen A et al. Cloning, sequence and expression of two distinct human interleukin-1 complementary DNA. Nature 1985; 315: 641.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Marks PA, Breslow R, Rifkind RA et al. Polar/apolar chemical inducers of differentiation of transformed cells: strategies to improve therapeutic potential. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1989; 86: 6358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Marks PA, Rifkind RA. Hexamethylene bisacetamide-induced differentiation of transformed cells: molecular and cellular effects and therapeutic application. Int J Cell Cloning 988; 6: 230.Google Scholar
  233. 233.
    Martin SJ, Bradley JG, Cotter TG. HL-60 cells induced to differentiate towards neutrophils subsequently die via apoptosis. Clin Exp Immunol 1990; 79: 448.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Matsui T, Nakao U, Kobayashi N et al. Phenotypic differentiation-linked growth inhibition in human leukemia cells by active vitamin D3 analogues. Int J Cancer 1984; 33: 193.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Maurer AB, Ganser A, Seipelt G et al. Changes in erythroid progenitor cell and accessory cell compartments in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes during treatment with all-trans retinoic acid and haemopoietic growth factors. Br J Haematol 1995; 89: 449.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    McCarthy DM, San Miguel JF, Freake HC et al. 1,25- Dihydroxyvitamin D3 inhibits proliferation of human promyelocytic leukaemia (HL-60) cells and induces monocyte-macrophage differentiation in HL-60 and normal human bone marrow cells. Leuk Res 1983; 7: 51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    McCarthy DM, Hibbins JA, Goldman JM. A role for 1,25- dihydroxyvitamin D3 in control of bone-marrow collagen deposition? Lancet 1984; 1: 78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Mehta K, Sadeghi T, McQueen T, Lopez-Berestein G. Liposome encapsulation circumvents the hepatic clearance mechanisms of all-trans-retinoic acid. Leuk Res 1994; 18: 587.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Mehta K, McQueen T, Neamati N et al. Activation of retinoid receptors RARa and RXRa induces differentiation and apoptosis, respectively, in HL-60 cells. Cell Growth Diff 1996; 7: 179.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Metcalf D. The roles of stem cell-renewal and autocrine growth factor production in the biology of myeloid leukemia. Cancer Res 1989; 49: 2305.Google Scholar
  241. 241.
    Metcalf D. Actions and interactions of G-CSF, LIF, and IL-6 on normal and leukemic murine cells. Leukemia 1989; 3: 349.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Metcalf D, Gearing DP. A myelosclerotic syndrome in mice engrafted with cells producing high levels of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). Leukemia 1989; 3: 847.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Metcalf D, Gearing DP. Fatal syndrome in mice engrafted with cells producing high levels of the leukemia inhibitory factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1989; 86: 5948.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Metcalf D, Hilton DJ, Nicola NA. Clonal analysis of the actions of the murine leukemia inhibitory factor on leukemic and normal murine hemopoietic cells. Leukemia 1988; 2: 216.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Mezzetti G, Bagnara G, Monti MG et al. 1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol and human histocytic lymphoma cell (U937): the presence of receptor and inhibition of proliferation. Life Sci 1984; 34: 2185.Google Scholar
  246. 246.
    Michaelewicz R, Lotem J, Sachs L. Cell differentiation and therapeutic effect of low doses of cytosine arabinoside in human myeloid leukemia. Leuk Res 1984; 8: 783.Google Scholar
  247. 247.
    Miyauchi J, Wang C, Kelleher CA et al. The effects of recombinant CSF-1 on the blast cells of acute myeloblastic leukemia in suspension culture. J Cell Physiol 1988; 135: 55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Miyaura C, Abe E, Kuribayashi T et al. 1-x25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 induces differentiation of human myeloid leukemia cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1981; 102: 937.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Miyaura C, Abe E, Honma Y et al. Cooperative effect of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and dexamethasone in inducing differentiation of mouse myeloid leukemia cells. Arch Biochem Biophys 1983; 227: 397.Google Scholar
  250. 250.
    Miyaura C, Abe E, Suda T et al. Alternative differentiation of human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60) induced selectively by retinoic acid and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Cancer Res 1985; 45: 4244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    Miyaura C, Onozaki K, Akiyama Y et al. Recombinant human interleukin-6 (B-cell stimulatory factor 2) is a potent inducer of differentiation of mouse myeloid leukemia cells (M1). FEBS Lett 1988; 234: 17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    Miyaura C, Jin CH, Yamaguchi Y et al. Production of interleukin 6 and its relation to the macrophage differentiation of mouse myeloid leukemia cells (M1) treated with differentiation-inducing factor and 1a,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1989; 158: 660.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Moloney WC, Rosenthal DS. Treatment of early acute non-lymphatic leukemia with low dose cytosine arabinoside. Haematol Blood Transfus 1981; 26: 59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    Momparler RL, Bouchard J, Onetto N et al. 5-Aza-2’- deoxycytidine therapy in patients with acute leukemia inhibits DNA methylation. Leuk Res 1984; 8: 181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    Moore M. Prediction of relapse and remission in AML by marrow culture criteria. Blood Cells 1976; 2: 109.Google Scholar
  256. 256.
    Moore M. Agar culture in CML and blastic transformation. Semin Haematol 1977; 8: 11.Google Scholar
  257. 257.
    Moore M. Proliferation and differentiation control mechanisms in myeloid leukemia. In: Mehich H, ed. Biological Responses in Cancer - Progress Toward Potential Applications, vol. 2. New York: Plenum, 1984: 93.Google Scholar
  258. 258.
    Moore MAS. Role of interleukin-1 in hematopoiesis. Immunol Res 1989; 8: 165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. 259.
    Moore MAS. Interactions between hematopoietic growth factors in normal and leukemic stem cell differentiation. In: Diamond L, Wolman SR, eds. Viral Oncogenesis and Cell Differentiation. Ann NY Acad Sci 1989; 567: 171.Google Scholar
  260. 260.
    Moore MAS. Coordinate actions of hematopoietic growth factors in stimulation of bone marrow function. In: Sporn MB, Roberts AB, eds. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology - Peptide Growth Factors and Their Receptors. 1990: 95 II: 299.Google Scholar
  261. 261.
    Moore M, Sheridan A. The role of proliferation and maturation factors in myeloid leukemia. In: Moore MAS, ed. Maturation Factors in Cancer. New York: Raven Press, 1982: 361.Google Scholar
  262. 262.
    Moore MAS, Warren DJ. Interleukin-1 and G-CSF synergism. In vivo stimulation of stem cell recovery and hematopoietic regeneration following 5-fluorouracil treatment in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1987; 84: 7134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. 263.
    Moore M, Williams N, Metcalf D. In vitro colony formation by normal and leukemic human hematopoietic cells: characterization of the colony-forming cells. J Natl Cancer Inst 1973; 50: 603.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. 264.
    Moore M, Spitzer G, Williams N et al. Agar culture studies in 127 cases of untreated acute leukemia. The prognostic value of reclassification of leukemia according to in vitro growth characteristics. Blood 1974; 44: 1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. 265.
    Moore MAS, Gabrilove JL, Welte K, Platzer E. Maturational factors in leukemia. In: Reif AE, Mitchell MS, eds. Immunity to Cancer. New York: Academic Press, 1985: 513.Google Scholar
  266. 266.
    Moore MAS, Warren DJ, Souza L. Synergistic interaction between interleukin-1 and CSFs in hematopoiesis. In: Gale RP, Golde DW, eds. UCLA Symposium on Leukemia, Recent Advances in Leukemia and Lymphoma. New York: Alan R. Liss, 1987: 445.Google Scholar
  267. 267.
    Moore M, Welte K, Gabrilove J et al. Biological activities of recombinant human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) and tumor necrosis factor: in vivo and in vitro analysis. Haematol Blood Transfus 1987; 31: 210.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. 268.
    Moreau J-F, Bonneville M, Godard A et al. Characterization of a factor produced by human T cell clones exhibiting eosinophil-activating and burst-promoting activities. J Immunol 1987; 138: 3844.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. 269.
    Moreau J-F, Donaldson DD, Bennett F et al. Leukaemia inhibitory factor is identical to the myeloid growth factor human interleukin for DA cells. Nature 1988; 336: 690.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. 270.
    Morosetti R, Park DJ, Chumakov AM et al. A novel, myeloid transcription factor, C/EBP epsilon, is upregulated during granulocytic, but not monocytic, differentiation. Blood 1997; 90: 2591.Google Scholar
  271. 271.
    Motoji T, Hoang T, Tritchler D, McCulloch EA. The effect of 5-aza-cytidine and its analogues on blast cell renewal in acute myeloblastic leukemia. Blood 1985; 65: 894.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. 272.
    Muller R, Muller D, Guilbert L. Differential expression of c-fos in hematopoietic cells: correlation with differentiation of myelomonocytic cells in vitro. EMBO J 1984; 3: 1887.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. 273.
    Muller K, Svenson M, Bendtzen K. 1-Alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and a novel vitamin D analogue MC 903 are potent inhibitors of human interleukin 1 in vitro. Immunol Lett 1988; 17: 361.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. 274.
    Munroe E, Sugiura M, Griffin J, Kufe D. Effect of ara-A on differentiation and proliferation of HL-60 cells. Leuk Res 1984; 8: 355.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. 275.
    Murao S, Gemmell MA, Callaham MF et al. Control of macrophage cell differentiation in human promyelocytic HL-60 leukemia cells by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and phorbol-12-myristate-13 acetate. Cancer Res 1983; 43: 4989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. 276.
    Murphy M, Perussia B, Trinchieri G. Effects of recombinant tumor necrosis factor, lymphotoxin, and immune interferon on proliferation and differentiation of enriched hematopoietic precursor cells. Exp Hematol 1988; 16: 131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. 277.
    Nagy L, Kao H-Y, Chakravarati D et al. Nuclear receptors repression mediated by a complex containing SMRT, mSin3A and histone deacetylase. Cell 1997; 89: 373.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. 278.
    Nagy L, Thomazy VA, Shipley GL et al. Activation of retinoid X receptors induces apoptosis in HL-60 cell lines. Mol Cell Biol 1995; 15: 3540.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  279. 279.
    Nagata K, Tohda S, Suzuki T et al. Effects of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor on the self-renewal capacity of leukemic blast progenitors in acute myeloblastic leukemia. Leukemia 1989; 3: 626.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. 280.
    Najean Y, Pecking A. Refractory anemia with excess of blast cells: prognostic factors and effect of treatment with androgens or cytosine arabinoside. Cancer 1976; 44: 345.Google Scholar
  281. 281.
    Nara N, McCulloch E. Membranes replace irradiated blast cells as growth requirement for leukemic blast progenitors in suspension culture. J Exp Med 1985; 162: 1435.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. 282.
    Nara N, Tohda S, Nagata K et al. Inhibition of the in vitro growth of blast progenitors from acute myeloblastic leukemia patients by transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta). Leukemia 1989; 3: 572.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. 283.
    Nervi C, Grippo JF, Sherman MI et al. Identification and characterization of nuclear retinoic acid-binding activity in human myeloblastic leukemia HL-60 cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1989; 86: 5854.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. 284.
    Newburger PE, Chovaniec ME, Greenburger JS, Cohen H. Functional changes in human leukemic cell line HL-60. J Cell Biol 1979; 82: 315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. 285.
    Nicola N, Begley C, Metcalf D. Identification of the human analogue of a regulator that induces differentiation in murine leukaemia cells. Nature 1985; 316: 625.Google Scholar
  286. 286.
    Niedel J, Kahane I, Lachman L, Cuartrecassas P. A sub-population of cultured human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60) displays the formyl peptide chemotactic receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1980; 77: 1000.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. 287.
    Nilsson K, Forsbeck K, Gidlund M et al. Surface characteristics of the U937 histiocytic lymphoma cell line: specific changes during inducible morphologic and functional differentiation in vitro. In: Net R, Gallo R, Graf T, Mannweiler K, Winkler H, eds. Haematology and Blood Transfusion, vol. 26. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1981: 215.Google Scholar
  288. 288.
    Ohta M, Massague J, Anklesaria P et al. Two forms of transforming growth factor-ß distinguished by multipotential haematopoietic progenitor cells. Nature 1987; 329: 539.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. 289.
    Ohno R. Differentiation therapy of myelodysplastic syndromes with retinoic acid. Leuk Lymph 1992; 14: 401.Google Scholar
  290. 290.
    Okabe-Kado J, Honma Y, Hayashi M et al. Inhibitory action of transforming growth factor-ß on induction of differentiation of myeloid leukemia cells. Jpn J Cancer Res 1989; 80: 228.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  291. 291.
    Olsson IL, Breitman T. Induction of differentiation of the human histiocytic lymphoma cell line U937 by retinoic acid and cyclic adenosine 3’:5’-monophosphate-inducing agents. Cancer Res 1982; 42: 3924.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  292. 292.
    Olsson IL, Breitman TR, Gallo RC. Priming of human myeloid leukemic cell lines HL-60 and U937 with retinoic acid for differentiation effects of cyclic adenosine 3’: 5’- monophosphate-inducing agents and a T-lymphocyte-derived differentiation factor. Cancer Res 1982; 42: 3928.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  293. 293.
    Olsson I. Gullberg U, Ivhed I et al. Induction of differentiation of the human histiocytic lymphoma cell line U937 by 1,25-dihydroxycholicalciferol. Cancer Res 1983; 43: 5862.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  294. 294.
    Olsson I, Sarngadharan MG, Breitman TR, Gallo R. Isolation and characterization of a T-lymphocyte-derived differentiation inducing factor for the myeloid leukemic cell line HL-60. Blood 1984; 63: 510.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  295. 295.
    Onozaki K, Tamatani T, Hashimoto T et al. Growth inhibition and augmentation of mouse myeloid cell line differentiation by interleukin 1. Cancer Res 1987; 47: 2397.Google Scholar
  296. 296.
    Onozaki K, Akiyama Y, Okano A et al. Synergistic regulatory effects of interleukin 6 and interleukin 1 on the growth and differentiation of human and mouse myeloid leukemic cell lines. Cancer Res 1989; 49: 3602.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  297. 297.
    Onozaki K, Urawa H, Tamatani T et al. Synergistic interactions of interleukin 1, interferon-y and tumor necrosis factor in terminally differentiating mouse myeloid leukemic cell line (M1). J Immunol 1988; 140: 112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  298. 298.
    Ossenkoppele GJ, Wijermans PW, Nauta JJP et al. Maturation induction in freshly isolated human myeloid leukemic cells, 1.25(OH)2 vitamin D3 being the most potent inducer. Leuk Res 1989; 13: 609.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  299. 299.
    Ottmann OG, Pelus LM. Differential proliferative effects of transforming growth factor-ß on human hematopoietic progenitor cells. J Immunol 1988; 140: 2661.Google Scholar
  300. 300.
    Ozplat B, Berestein GL, Mehta K. ATRA(ouble) in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents 2001; 15: 107.Google Scholar
  301. 301.
    Pakkala S, de Vos S, Elstner E et al. Antileukemic activities and effects on serum calcium of three novel vitamin D3 analogs. Blood 1993; 82 (Suppl.): 255a (abstract).Google Scholar
  302. 302.
    Palacios R, Ivhed I, Sideras P et al. Accessory function of human tumor cell lines. I. Production of interleukin 1 by the human histiocytic lymphoma cell line U937. Eur J Immunol 1982; 12: 895.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  303. 303.
    Pantazis P, Lazarou S, Papadopoulos N. Isoenzymes of lactate dehydrogenase in human leukemic cells in culture treated with inducers of differentiation. J Cell Biol 1981; 90: 396.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  304. 304.
    Paoletti F, Mocali A. Changes in CuZn-superoxide dismutase during induced differentiation of murine erythroleukemia cells. Cancer Res 1988; 48: 6674.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  305. 305.
    Parthasarathy R, Mehta K. Altered metabolism of all-transretinoic acid in liposome-encapsulated form. Cancer Lett 1998; 134: 121.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  306. 306.
    Peetre C, Gullberg U, Nilsson E et al. Effects of recombinant tumor necrosis factor on proliferation and differentiation of leukemic and normal hemopoietic cells in vitro. J Clin Invest 1986; 78: 1694.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  307. 307.
    Pelus LM, Ottmann OG, Nocka KH. Synergistic inhibition of human marrow granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells by prostaglandin E and recombinant interferon-a, -ß and -y and an effect mediated by tumor necrosis factor. J Immunol 1988; 140: 479.Google Scholar
  308. 308.
    Pelicano L, Li F, Schindler C, Chelbi-Alix MK. Retinoic acid enhances the expression of interferon-induced proteins. Evidence for multiple mechanisms of action. Oncogene 1997; 15: 2349.Google Scholar
  309. 309.
    Pennica D, Nedwin GE, Hayflick JS et al. Human tumor necrosis factor: precursor structure, expression and homology to lymphotoxin. Nature 1985; 312: 724.Google Scholar
  310. 310.
    Perussia B, Lebman D, Ip S et al. Terminal differentiation surface antigens of myelomonocytic cells are expressed in human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60) treated with chemical inducers. Blood 1981; 58: 836.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  311. 311.
    Piacibello W, Broxmeyer HE. Modulation of expression of Ia(HLA-DR)-antigens on human monocyte cell line U937 by gamma interferon and prostaglandin E and responsiveness of U937 colony forming cells to inhibition of lactoferrin, transferrin, acidic isoferritins and prostaglandin E. Blood 1983; 62 (Suppl. 1): 86.Google Scholar
  312. 312.
    Picozzi VJ, Swanson GF, Morgan R et al. 13-Cis-retinoic acid treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes. J Clin Oncol 1986; 4: 589.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  313. 313.
    Pike MC, Fischer DG, Koren H, Snyderman R. Development of specific receptors for N-formylated chemotactic peptides in a human monocytic cell line stimulated with lymphokines. J Exp Med 1980; 152: 31.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  314. 314.
    Pinto A, Attadia V, Fusco A et al. 5-Aza-2’-deoxycytidine induces terminal differentiation of leukemic blasts from patients with acute myeloid leukemias. Blood 1984; 64: 922.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  315. 315.
    Platzer E, Welte K, Gabrilove J et al. Biological activities of human pluripotent hemopoietic colony stimulating factor on normal and leukemic cells. J Exp Med 1985; 162: 1788.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  316. 316.
    Pluznik DH. Synergistic activity of interleukin-1 alpha and interleukin-6 induces differentiation of myeloid cells into mature macrophages. Exp Hematol 1988; 16: 504.Google Scholar
  317. 317.
    Potter GK, Mohamed AN, Dracapoli NC et al. The action of 1,25(OH)2 D3 in nude mice bearing transplantable human myelogenous leukemic cell lines. Exp Hematol 1985; 13: 722.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  318. 318.
    Powell BL, Capizzi RL, Jackson DV et al. Low dose ara-C for patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. Leukemia 1988; 2: 153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  319. 319.
    Prigent SA, Lemoine NR. The type 1 (EGFR-related) family of growth factor receptors and their ligands. Prog Growth Factor Res 1992; 4: 1–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  320. 320.
    Provendini DM, Tsoulas CD, Deftos LJ, Manolagas SC. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptors in human leukocytes. Science 1983; 221: 1181.Google Scholar
  321. 321.
    Pusztai L, Lewis CE, Lorenzen J, McGee JO’D. Growth factors: regulation of normal and neoplastic growth. J Pathol 1993; 169: 191–201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  322. 322.
    Raff MC. Social controls on cell survival and cell death. Nature 1992; 356: 397.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  323. 323.
    Ralph P, Moore MAS, Nilsson K. Lysozyme synthesis by established human and murine histiocytic cell lines. J Exp Med 1976; 143: 1528.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  324. 324.
    Ralph P, Williams N, Moore MAS, Litcofsky P. Induction of antibody-dependent and nonspecific tumor killing in human monocyte leukemic cells by nonlymphocyte factors and phorbol ester. Cell Immunol 1982; 71: 215.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  325. 325.
    Ralph P, Harris P, Punjabi CJ et al. Lymphokine inducing ‘terminal differentiation’ of the human monoblast leukemia line U937: a role for gamma interferon. Blood 1983; 62: 1169.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  326. 326.
    Raza A, Preisler H. Evidence of in vivo differentiation in myeloblasts labeled with bromodeoxyuridine. Cancer J 1986; 1: 15.Google Scholar
  327. 327.
    Razin A, Levine A, Kafri T et al. Relationship between transient DNA hypomethylation and erythroid differentiation of murine erythroleukemia cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1988; 85: 9003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  328. 328.
    Rees J. The molecular biology of retinoic acid receptors: orphan from good family seeks home. Br J Dermatol 1992; 126: 97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  329. 329.
    Reily IAG, Kozlowski R, Russell NH. Heterogenous mechanisms of autocrine growth of AML blasts. Br J Haematol 1989; 72: 363.Google Scholar
  330. 330.
    Reitsma PH, Rothberg PG, Astrin SM et al. Regulation of myc gene expression in HL-60 leukemia cells by a vitamin D metabolite. Nature 1983; 306: 492.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  331. 331.
    Richon VM, Ramsay RG, Rifkind RA et al. Modulation of the c-myb, c-myc and p42 on MRNA and protein levels during induced murine erythroleukemia cell differentiation. Oncogene 1989; 4: 165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  332. 332.
    Rigby WFC, Shen L, Ball ED et al. Differentiation of a human monocytic cell line by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol): a morphological, phenotypic and functional analysis. Blood 1984; 64: 1110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  333. 333.
    Robertson KA, Emami B, Collins SJ. Retinoic acid-resistant HL-60R cells harbor a point mutation in the retinoic acid receptor ligand-binding domain that confers dominant negative acitivity. Blood 1992; 80: 1885.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  334. 334.
    Robertson KA, Emami B, Lueller L, Collins SJ. Multiple members of the retinoic acid receptor family are capable of mediating the granulocytic differentiation of HL-60 cells. Mol Cell Biol 1992; 12: 3743.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  335. 335.
    Rosenblum MG, Donato NJ. Tumor necrosis factor alpha: a multifaceted peptide hormone. Crit Rev Immunol 1989; 9: 21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  336. 336.
    Rouis M, Thomopoulos P, Louache F et al. Differentiation of U-937 human monocyte-like cell line by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 or by retinoic acid. Exp Cell Res 1985; 157: 539.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  337. 337.
    Rovera G, O’Brien T, Diamond L. Induction of differentiation in human promyelocytic leukemia by tumor promoters. Science 1977; 204: 868.Google Scholar
  338. 338.
    Rovera G, Santoli D, Damsky C. Human promyelocytic leukemic cells in culture differentiate into macrophage-like cells when treated with a phorbol diester. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1979; 76: 2779.Google Scholar
  339. 339.
    Rovera G, Olashaw N, Meo P. Terminal differentiation in human promyelocytic leukemic cells in vitro by 6-thioguanine. Cancer Lett 1980; 10: 33.Google Scholar
  340. 340.
    Rowinsky EK, Ettinger DS, McGuire WP et al. Prolonged infusion of hemaxamethylene bisacetamide: a phase I and pharmacological study. Cancer Res 1987; 47: 5788.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  341. 341.
    Ruscetti FW, Sing G, Ruscetti SK et al. The role of transforming growth factor-beta in the regulation of normal and leukemic hematopoiesis. Exp Hematol 1988; 16: 417.Google Scholar
  342. 342.
    Ruutu P, Ruutu T, Vuopio P et al. Defective chemotaxis in monosomy-7. Nature 1977; 265: 146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  343. 343.
    Sachs L. Control of normal cell differentiation and the phenotopic reversion of malignancy in myeloid leukemia. Nature 1978; 274: 535.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  344. 344.
    Salahuddin SZ, Markham PD, Ruscetti FW, Gallo RC. Long-term suspension cultures of human cord blood myeloid cells. Blood 1981; 58: 931.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  345. 345.
    Salem M, Delwel R, Touw I et al. Modulation of colony stimulating factor-(CSF) dependent growth of acute myeloid leukemia by tumor necrosis factor. Leukemia 1990; 4: 37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  346. 346.
    Santoli D, Yang Y-C, Steven CC et al. Synergistic and antagonistic effects of recombinant human interleukin (IL) 3, IL-1a, granulocyte and macrophage colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF and M-CSF) on the growth of GM-CSFdependent leukemic cell lines. J Immunol 1987; 139: 3348.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  347. 347.
    Sato T, Takusagawa K, Asso N, Konno K. Antitumor effect of 1 alpha-hydroxyvitamin D3. Tohoku J Exp Med 1982; 138: 445.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  348. 348.
    Sawyer S, Krantz S, Luna J. Identification of the receptor for erythropoietin by cross-linking to Friend virus-infected erythroid cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1987; 84: 3690.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  349. 349.
    Schif RD, Stuart RK. Treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and poor-prognosis acute myeloid leukemias (PP-AML) with low-dose cytarabine (LDS) plus 13-cisretinoic acid (RA). Proc Annu Meet Am Soc Clin Oncol 1989; 8: A801.Google Scholar
  350. 350.
    Schwartz EL, Brown BJ, Nierenburg M et al. Evaluation of marcellomycin using an in vivo model for studying drug-induced leukemia cell differentiation. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 1982; 23: 173.Google Scholar
  351. 351.
    Schwartz EL, Sartorelli AC. Structure-activity relationships for the induction of differentiation of HL-60 human acute promyelocytic leukemia cells by anthracyclines. Cancer Res 1982; 42: 2651.Google Scholar
  352. 352.
    Schwartz EL, Snoddy JR, Kreutter D et al. Synergistic induction of HL-60 differentiation by 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 1983; 23: 71 (meeting abstract).Google Scholar
  353. 353.
    Senior RM, Cambell EJ, Landis JA et al. Elastase of U937 monocyte-like cells. J Clin Invest 1982; 69: 384.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  354. 354.
    Shabo Y, Lotem J, Rubinstein M et al. The myeloid blood cell differentiation-inducing protein MGI-2A is interleukin6. Blood 1988; 72: 2070.Google Scholar
  355. 355.
    Shen L, Guyre PM, Fanger MW. Direct stimulation of ADCC by cloned gamma interferon is not ablated by glucocorticoids: studies using a human monocyte-like cell line (U937). Mol Immunol 1983; 21: 167.Google Scholar
  356. 356.
    Shiina Y, Abe E, Miyaura C et al. Biological activity of 24,24-difluoro-1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and 1-alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3–26,23-lactone in inducing differentiation of human myeloid leukemia cells. Arch Biochem Biophys 1983; 220: 90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  357. 357.
    Silverman LR, Davis RB, Holland JF et al. 5-Azacytidine (AZ) as a low dose continuous infusion is an effective therapy for patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Proc Annu Meet Soc Clin Oncol 1989; 8: A768.Google Scholar
  358. 358.
    Sing GK, Keller JR, Ellingsworth LR et al. Transforming growth factor beta selectively inhibits normal and leukemic human bone marrow cell growth in vitro. Blood 1988; 72: 1504.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  359. 359.
    Sing GK, Keller JR, Ellingsworth LR et al. Transforming growth factor-01 enhances the suppression of human hematopoiesis by tumor necrosis factor-a or recombinant interferon-y. J Cell Biochem 1989; 39: 107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  360. 360.
    Slack JL. Biology and treatment of acute progranulocytic leukemia. Curr Opin Hematol 1999; 6: 236PubMedGoogle Scholar
  361. 361.
    Sporn MB, Roberts AB, Goodman DS, eds The Retinoids: Biology, Chemistry, and Medicine. New York: Raven Press, 1994.Google Scholar
  362. 362.
    Sporn M, Todaro G. Autocrine secretion and malignant transformation of cells. N Engl J Med 1980; 303: 878.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  363. 363.
    Stevens VL, Owens NE, Winton EF et al. Modulation of retinoic acid-induced differentiation of human leukemia (HL-60) cells by serum factors and sphingamine. Cancer Res 1990; 50: 222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  364. 364.
    Sun GL, Huang YG, Chang XF, Jiang GS, Zhang T. Clinical study on all-trans retinoic acid in treatment of 544 cass of acute promyelocytic leukemia treated. Clin J Hematol 1992; 13: 135–7.Google Scholar
  365. 365.
    Sundstrom C, Nilsson K. Establishment and characterization of a human histiocytic lymphoma cell line (U937). Int J Cancer 1976; 17: 565.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  366. 366.
    Sutherland GR, Baker E, Hyland VJ et al. The gene for human leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) maps to 22g12. Leukemia 1989; 3: 9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  367. 367.
    Svet-Moldavskaya I, Arlin Z, Svet-Moldavskaya G. Induction by tumor-promoting phorbol diester of colony-stimulating activity in human myeloid leukemia cells transformed to macrophage-mimicking cells. Cancer Res 1981; 41: 4335.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  368. 368.
    Swanson GF, Picozzi VJ, Morgan R et al. Response of hematopoetic percursors to 13-cis-retinoic acid and 1.25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 in myelodysplastic syndromes. Blood 1986; 67: 1154.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  369. 369.
    Takeda K, Minowada J, Bloch A. Kinetics of appearance of differentiation-associated characteristics in ML-1, a line of human myeloblastic leukemia cells, after treatment with 12–0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, dimethyl sulfoxide, or 1–0-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine. Cancer Res 1982; 42: 5152.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  370. 370.
    Takeda K, Iwamoto S, Sugimoto H et al. Identity of differentiation inducing factor and tumour necrosis factor. Nature 1986; 323: 338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  371. 371.
    Takenaga K, Hozumi M, Sakagami Y. Effect of retinoids on induction of differentiation of cultured mouse myeloid leukemia cells. Cancer Res 1980; 40: 914.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  372. 372.
    Tamatani T, Urawa H, Hashimoto T et al. Tumor necrosis factor as an interleukin 1-dependent differentiation inducing factor (D-factor) for mouse myeloid leukemic cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1987; 143: 390.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  373. 373.
    Tanabe O, Kawano M, Tanaka H et al. BSF-2/IL-6 does not augment Ig secretion but stimulates proliferation in myeloma cells. Am J Hematol 1989; 31: 258.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  374. 374.
    Tanaka Y, Deluca HF, Schnoes HK et al. 24,24-Difluoro1.25-dihydroxyvitamin D3: in vitro production, isolation, and biological activity. Arch Biochem Biophys 1980; 199: 473.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  375. 375.
    Tessier N, Hoang T. Transforming growth factor beta inhibits the proliferation of the blast cells of acute myeloblastic leukemia. Blood 1988; 72: 159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  376. 376.
    Thesingh CW, Burger EH. Origin of osteoclast progenitor cells from central blood cell forming organs. Calcif Tissue Int 1981; 335: 108.Google Scholar
  377. 377.
    Tobler A, Gasson J, Reichel H et al. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Sensitive and receptor-mediated regulation by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in normal human peripheral blood lymphocytes. J Clin Invest 1987; 79: 1700.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  378. 378.
    Tobler A, Munker R, Heitjan D et al. In vitro interaction of recombinant tumor necrosis factor alpha and all-transretinoic acid with normal and leukemic hematopoietic cells. Blood 1987; 70: 1940.Google Scholar
  379. 379.
    Todd R III, Griffin J, Ritz J et al. Expression of normal monocyte-macrophage differentiation antigens on HL-60 promyelocytes undergoing differentiation induced by leukocyte-conditioned medium or phorbol ester. Leuk Res 1981; 5: 491.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  380. 380.
    Tohyama K, Ohmori S, Ueda T et al. Cooperative effects of gamma-interferon and 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D-3 on in vitro differentiation of the blast cells of RAEB and RAEB -T. Blut 1989; 58: 181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  381. 381.
    Tomida M, Yamamoto-Yamaguchi Y, Hozumi M. Purification of a factor inducing differentiation of mouse myeloid leukemic M1 cells from conditioned medium of mouse fibroblast L929 cells. J Biol Chem 1984; 259: 10978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  382. 382.
    Tricot G, Jayaram HN, Zhen W et al. Biochemically directed therapy with tiazofurin of refractory leukemia and myeloid blast crisis of chronic granulocytic leukemia. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 1991; 32: 184.Google Scholar
  383. 383.
    Trinchieri G, Rosen M, Perussia B. Retinoic acid cooperates with tumor necrosis factor and immune interferon in inducing differentiation and growth inhibition of the human promyelocytic leukemic cell line HL-60. Blood 1987; 69: 1218.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  384. 384.
    Tsoukas C, Provvedine DM, Manolagas SV. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3: a novel immunoregulatory hormone. Science 1984; 224: 1438.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  385. 385.
    Turner RT, Puzas JE, Forte MD et al. In vitro synthesis of 1,25(OH)2 D3 by isolated calvarial cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1980; 77: 5720.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  386. 386.
    Ueno H, Kizaki M, Matsushita H et al. A novel retinoic acid receptor-selective antagonist inhibits differentiation and apoptosis of HL-60 cells: implications of RAR-mediated signals in myeloid leukemia cells. Leuk Res 1998; 22: 517.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  387. 387.
    Van Beek W, Tulp A, Egbers-Bogards M et al. Continuous expression of cancer-related fucosyl glycopeptides on surface of human promyelocytic leukemic cells (HL-60) following terminal differentiation in vitro. Cancer Res 1982; 42: 5222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  388. 388.
    Van Beek W, Tulp A, Bolscher J et al. Transient versus permanent expression of cancer-related glycopeptides on normal versus leukemic myeloid cells coinciding with marrow egress. Blood 1984; 63: 170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  389. 389.
    Van der Schoot CE, Jansen P, Porter M et al. Interleukin-6 and interleukin-1 production in acute leukemia with monocytoid differentiation. Blood 1989; 74: 2081.Google Scholar
  390. 390.
    Van Snick J, Cayphas S, Szikora J-P et al. cDNA cloning of murine interleukin-HP1: homology with human interleukin6. Eur J Immunol 1988; 18: 193–197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  391. 391.
    Venditti A, Scimo MT, Del Poeta G et al. Recombinant interferon-apha 2a. thymopentin and low doses of cytosine arabinoside for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes: a pilot study. Leuk Lympho. 1995; 16: 335.Google Scholar
  392. 392.
    Visani G, Cenacchi A, Tosi P et al. All-trans retinoic acid improves erythropoiesis in myelodysplastic syndromes. Br J Haematol 1992; 81: 444.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  393. 393.
    Visani G, Tosi P, Manfroi S et al. All-trans retinoic acid in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes. Leuk Lymph 1995; 19: 277.Google Scholar
  394. 394.
    Wahl SM, Hunt DA, Wakefield LM et al. Transforming growth factor type beta induces monocyte chemotaxis and growth factor production. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1987; 84: 5788.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  395. 395.
    Walsh JH, Karnes WE, Cuttitta F, Walker A. Autocrine growth factors and solid tumor malignancy: conferences and reviews. West J Med 1991; 152.Google Scholar
  396. 396.
    Wang C, Curtis JE, Minden MD et al. Expression of a retinoic acid receptor gene in myeloid leukemia cells. Leukemia 1989; 3: 264.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  397. 397.
    Wang C, Kelleher CA, Cheng GY et al. Expression of the CSF-1 gene in the blast cells of acute myeloblastic leukemia: association with reduced growth capacity. J Cell Physiol 1988; 135: 133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  398. 398.
    Wakamiya N, Stone R, Takeyama H et al. Detection of tumor necrosis factor gene expression at a cellular level in human acute myeloid leukemias. Leukemia 1989; 3: 51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  399. 399.
    Warrell RP Jr, Frankel SP, Miller WH Jr et al. Differentiation therapy of acute promyelocytic leukemia with tretinoin (all-trans retinoic acid). New Engl J Med 1991; 324: 1385PubMedGoogle Scholar
  400. 400.
    Warrell RP Jr, Maslak P, Eardley A et al. All-trans retinoic acid for treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia: an update of the New York experience. Leukemia 1994; 8: 929–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  401. 401.
    Weber G. Biochemical strategy of cancer cells and the design of chemotherapy. GHA Clowes Memorial Lecture. Cancer Res 1983; 43: 3466–92.Google Scholar
  402. 402.
    Weh HZ, Zschaber R, Hossfeld DK. Low-dose cytosinearabinoside in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Blut 1984; 48: 239.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  403. 403.
    Weis K, Rambaud S, Lavau C et al. Retinoic acid regulates aberrant nuclear localization of PML-RAR alpha in acute promyelocytic leukemia cells. Cell 1994; 76: 345.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  404. 404.
    Westin E, Wong-Staal F, Gelmann E et al. Expressing cellular homologues of retroviral onc genes in human hematopoietic cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1982; 74: 2490.Google Scholar
  405. 405.
    Wilkins JA, Sigurdson SL, Rutherford W. The production of immunoregulatory factors by a human macrophage-like cell line. I. Characterization of an inhibitor of lymphocyte DNA synthesis. Cell Immunol 1983; 75: 328.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  406. 406.
    Williams RL, Hilton DJ, Pease S et al. Myeloid leukaemia inhibitory factor maintains the developmental potential of embryonic stem cells. Nature 1988; 336: 684.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  407. 407.
    Williams DE, Cooper S, Broxmeyer HE. Effects of hematopoietic suppressor molecules on the in vitro proliferation of purified murine granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells. Cancer Res 1988; 48: 1548.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  408. 408.
    Wing E, Koren H, Fischer D, Kelly V. Stimulation of a human macrophage-like cell line (U937) to inhibit the multiplication of an intracellular pathogen. J Reticuloen-dothel Soc 1981; 29: 321.Google Scholar
  409. 409.
    Wisch JS, Griffin JD, Dufe DW. Response of preleukemic syndromes to continuous infusion of low dose cytovabine. N Engl J Med 1983; 309: 1599.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  410. 410.
    Yam LT, Li CY, Crosby WH. Cytochemical identification of monocytes and granulocytes. Am J Clin Pathol 1971; 55: 283.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  411. 411.
    Yamamori T, Fukada K, Aebersold R et al. The cholinergic neuronal differentiation factor from heart cells is identical to leukemia inhibitory factor. Science 1989; 246: 1412.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  412. 412.
    Yao TP, Ku, G, Zhou N et al. The nuclear hormone receptor coactivator SRC-1 is a specific target of p300. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1996; 93, 10626.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  413. 413.
    Yee C, Biondi A, Wang XH et al. A possible autocrine for interleukin-6 in two lymphoma cell lines. Blood 1989; 74: 798.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  414. 414.
    Yen A, Forbes M, DeGala G et al. Control of HL-60 cell differentiation lineage specificity, a late event occurring after precommitment. Cancer Res 1987; 47: 129.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  415. 415.
    Yetgin S, Ozsoylu S. Myeloid metaplasia in vitamin D deficiency rickets. Scand J Haematol 1982; 28: 180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  416. 416.
    Ymer S, Tucker Q, Sanderson C et al. Constitutive synthesis of interleukin-3 by leukemia cell line WEHI-3B is due to retroviral insertion near the gene. Nature 1985; 317: 255.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  417. 417.
    Yoffe G, Spitzer G, Boggs BA. Determination of clonality in acute nonlymphocytic leukemia by restriction fragment length polymorphism and methylation analysis. Leukemia 1987; 1: 226.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  418. 418.
    Yoshida Y, Tohyama K, Sakoda H et al. In vitro and in vivo effects of interferon gamma and vitamin D3 in patient with RAEB. Proc Annu Meet Jpn Cancer Assoc 1987; 46: 168.Google Scholar
  419. 419.
    Young CW, Fanucci MP, Declan-Walsh T et al. Phase I trial and clinical pharmacological evaluation of hexamethylene bisacetamide administration by ten-day continuous intravenous infusion at twenty-eight-day intervals. Cancer Res 1988; 48: 7304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  420. 420.
    Young D, Wagner K, Griffin J. Constitutive expression of the granulocyte—macrophage colony stimulating factor gene in acute myeloblastic leukemia. J Clin Invest 1987; 79: 100.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  421. 421.
    Young DC, Demetri GD, Ernst TJ et al. In vitro expression of colony-stimulating factor genes by human acute myeloblastic leukemia cells. Exp Hematol 1988; 16: 378.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  422. 422.
    Yourno J, Walsh J, Kornatowski G et al. Nonspecific esterases of leukemia cell lines: evidence for activation of myeloid-associated zymogens in HL-60 by phorbol esters. Blood 1983; 63: 238.Google Scholar
  423. 423.
    Zagonel V, Pinto A, Attadia V et al. Phase I—II clinical— biological study of 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine (5AZACDR) as a differentiation inducer in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) of elderly. Proc Annu Meet Am Soc Clin Oncol 1989; 8: A767.Google Scholar
  424. 424.
    Zhang XG, Klein B, Bataille R. Interleukin-6 is a potent myeloma-cell growth factor in patients with aggressive multiple myeloma. Blood 1989; 74: 11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  425. 425.
    Zinzar S, Ohnuma T, Holland JF. Effects of simultaneous and sequential exposure to granulocytic and monocytic inducers on the choice of differentiation pathway in HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells. Leuk Res 1989; 13: 23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  426. 426.
    Zumkeller W, Schofield PN. Growth factors, cytokines and soluble forms of receptor molecules in cancer patients. Anticancer Res 1995; 15: 343–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kapil Mehta
  • Robert K. Oldham

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations