Advertisement

Recent advances in the cellular immunotherapy of human cancer

  • Joanne M. Wroblewski
  • John R. Yannelli
Chapter

Abstract

The field of immunotherapy has continued to experience tremendous progress over the past 20 years. In the second edition of Principles of Cancer Biotherapy, published in 1991, our chapter focused on the nonspecific or innate arm of the cellular immune response (natural killer cells, NK cells; lymphokine-activated killer cells, LAK cells; and macrophages). We showed how it was utilized clinically to treat metastatic cancer [103]. Discussion centered on newly developed large-scale cell culture technologies that were used to generate LAK cells and macrophages in numbers that could be infused into cancer patients. That was over 12 years ago and that chapter reflected work that was done beginning in the early 1980s. In the third edition our focus shifted to the specific arm or adaptive immune system, in particular to tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) [107]. That chapter outlined the major advances made in basic lymphocyte biology including the discovery of the T cell receptor (TCR). Much has been learned since regarding mechanisms whereby TCR recognize a tumor cell through protein antigen-derived peptides presented by self-MHC (either class I or class II). In addition, improved cell culture techniques and the bulk production of newly identified growth and/ or differentiation-inducing cytokines facilitated large-scale growth of tumor-specific T cells both for basic research and cellular immunotherapy clinical protocols.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Arienti F, Sule-Suso J, Belli F et al. Limited antitumor T cell response in melanoma patients vaccinated with interleukin2 gene-transduced allogeneic melanoma cells. Hum Gene Ther 1996; 7: 1955–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Aebersold P, Hyatt C, Johnson S et al. Lysis of autologous melanoma cells by TIL: association with clinical responses. J Natl Cancer Inst 1991; 83: 932–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Antonio SJ, Seigne J, Diaz J et al. Phase I trial of a B7–1 (CD80) gene modified autologous tumor cell vaccine in combination with systemic IL-2 in patients with metastasis renal cell carcinoma. J Urol 2002; 167: 1995–2000.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bain C, Merrouch Y, Puiseux I. B7.1 gene transduction of human renal-cell carcinoma cell lines restores the proliferative response and cytotoxic function of allogeneic T cells. Int J Cancer 1996; 67: 769–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Banchereau J, Palucka AK, Dhodapkar M et al. Immune and clinical responses in patients with metastasis melanoma to CD34(+) progenitor-derived dendritic cell vaccine. Cancer Res 2001; 61: 6451–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Belli F, Arienti F, Sule-Suso J et al. Active immunization of metastasis melanoma patients with interleukin-2-transduced allogeneic melanoma cells: evaluation of efficacy and tolerability. Cancer Immunol Immunother 1997; 44: 197–203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bender A, Sapp M, Schuler G et al. Improved methods for the generation of dendritic cells from nonproliferating progenitors in peripheral blood. J Immunol Met 1996; 196: 121–35.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Berd D, Maguire HC, McCue P et al. Treatment of metastasis melanoma with an autologous tumor-cell vaccine: clinical and immunology results in 64 patients. J Clin Oncol 1990; 8: 858–67.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bixby DL, Yannelli JR. CD80 expression in an HLA-A2 positive human non-small cell lung cancer cell line enhances proliferation and cytotoxicity of HLA-A2 positive T cells derived from normal donors and patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Int J Cancer 1998; 78: 685–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Boel P, Wildmann C, Sensi ML et al. BAGE, a new gene encoding an antigen recognized on human melanomas by CTL. Immunity 1995; 2: 167–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Brichard V, Van Pel, A, Wolfel T et al. The tyrosinase gene coded for an antigen recognized by autologous CTL on HLA-A2+ melanoma. J Exp Med 1993; 178: 489–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Brossart P, Heinrich KS, Stuhler G et al. Identification of HLA-A2 restricted T cell epitopes derived from the MUC-1 tumor antigen for broadly applicable vaccine therapies. Blood 1999; 93: 4309–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Brossart P, Wirths S, Stuhler G et al. Induction of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses in vivo after vaccinations with peptide-pulsed dendritic cells. Blood 2000; 96: 3102–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chiari R, Foury F, De Plaen E et al. Two antigens recognized by autologous cytolytic T lymphocytes on a melanoma result from a single point mutation in an essential housekeeping gene. Cancer Res 1999; 59: 5785–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Coulie PG, Brichard V, Van Pael A. A new gene coding for a differentiation antigen recognized by autologous CTL on HLA-A2 melanomas. J Exp Med 1994; 180: 35–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dillman RO, Oldham RK, Barth NM et al. Continuous interleukin-2 and tumor infiltrating lymphocytes as treatment of advanced melanoma: a national biotherapy study group trial. Cancer 1991; 68: 1–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Dranoff G, Jaffee E, Lazenby A et al. Vaccination with irradiated tumor cells engineered to secrete murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor stimulates potent, specific, and long-lasting anti-tumor immunity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1993; 90: 3539–3343.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dranoff G, Soiffer R, Lynch T et al. A phase I study of vaccination with autologous, irradiated melanoma cells engineered to secrete human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor. Hum Gene Ther 1997; 8: 111–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ellem KA, O’Rourke MG, Johnson GR et al. A case report: immune responses and clinical course of the first human use of granulocyte/macrophage-colony-stimulating-factortransduced autologous melanoma cells for immunotherapy. Cancer Immunol Immunother 1997; 44: 10–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Elliott GT, McLeod RA, Perez J et al. Interim results of a phase II multicenter clinical trial evaluating the activity of a therapeutic allogeneic melanoma vaccine (theraccine) in the treatment of disseminated malignant melanoma. Semin Surg Oncol 1993; 9: 264–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Fisk B, Blevins TL, Wharton JT et al. Identification of an immunodominant peptide of Her-2neu proto-oncogene recognized by ovarian tumor specific CTL lines. J Exp Med 1995; 181: 2109–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Fong L, Brockstedt D, Benike C et al. Dendritic cells injected via different routes induce immunity in cancer patients. J Immunol 2001; 166: 4254–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Fong L, Brockstedt D, Benike C et al. Dendritic cell-based xenoantigen vaccination for prostate cancer immunotherapy. J Immunol 2001; 167: 7150–7156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gaugler B, Van Den Eynde B, Van Der Bruggen P et al. Human gene Mage-3 codes for an antigen recognized on a melanoma by autologous CTL. J Exp Med 1994; 179: 921–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gueguen M, Patard JJ, Gaugler B et al. An antigen recognized by autologous CTLs on a human bladder carcinoma. J Immunol 1998; 160: 6188–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hemmila M, Chang A. Clinical implications of the new biology in the development of melanoma vaccines. J Surg Oncol 1999; 70: 263–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hsu FJ, Benike C, Fagnoni F et al. Vaccination of patients with B-cell lymphoma using autologous antigen-pulsed dendritic cells. Nat Med 1996; 2: 52–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Jager E, Chen YT, Drijfhout JW et al. Simultaneous humoral and cellular immune response against cancer-testis antigen NY-ESO-1: definition of human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A2-binding peptide epitopes. J Exp Med 1998; 187: 265–70.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Jager E, Jager D, Knuth A. Clinical cancer vaccine trials. Curr Opin Immunol 2002; 14: 178–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kang X, Kawakami Y, El-Gamil M et al. Identification of a tyrosinase epitope recognized by HLA-A24 restricted, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. J Immunol 1995; 155: 1343–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kato K, Takaue Y, Wakasugi H. T cell-conditioned medium efficiently induces the maturation and function of human dendritic cells. J Leukocyte Biol 2001; 70: 941–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kawakami Y, Eliyahu S, Delgado CH et al. Cloning of the gene coding for a shared human melanoma antigen recognized by autologous T cells infiltrating into tumor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1994; 91: 3515–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kawakami Y, Eliyahu S, Delgado CH et al. Identification of a melanoma antigen recognized by tumor infiltrating lymphocytes associated with in vivo rejection. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1994; 91: 6458–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kawakami Y, Eliyahu S, Sakaguchi K et al. Identification of the immunodominant peptides of the MART-1 human melanoma antigen recognized by the majority of HLA-A2 restricted tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. J Exp Med 1994; 180: 347–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kawano K, Gomi S, Tanaka K et al. Identification of a new endoplasmic reticulum protein recognized by HLA-A24 restricted TIL of lung cancer. Cancer Res 2000; 60: 3550–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kugler A, Stuhler G, Walden P et al. Regression of human metastasis renal cell carcinoma after vaccination with tumor cell-dendritic cell hybrids. Nat Med 2000; 6: 332–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lau R, Wang F, Jeffery G et al. Phase I trial of intravenous peptide-pulsed dendritic cells in patients with metastasis melanoma. J Immunother 2001; 24: 66–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ludewig B, Ochsenbein AF, OdermattB et al. Immunotherapy with dendritic cells directed against tumor antigens shared with normal host cells results in severe autoimmune disease. J Exp Med 2000; 191: 795–804.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Maleckar JR, Friddell CS, Sferruzza A et al. Activation and expansion of tumor derived activated cells for clinical use. J Natl Cancer Inst 1989; 81: 1655–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Mandruzzato S, Brasseur F, Andry G et al. A CASP-8 mutation recognized by cytolytic T lymphocytes on a human head and neck carcinoma. J Exp Med 1997; 186: 785–93.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    McCune CS, O’Donnell RW, Marquis DM et al. Renal cell carcinoma treated by vaccines for active specific immunotherapy: correlation of survival with skin testing by autologous tumor cells. Cancer Immunol Immunother 1990; 32: 62–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Moingeon P. Cancer vaccines. Vaccine 2001; 19: 1305–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Morton DL, Foshag LJ, Hoon DS et al. Prolongation of survival in metastasis melanoma after active specific immunotherapy with a new polyvalent melanoma vaccine. Ann Surg 1992; 216: 463–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Morton DL, Hoon DS, Nizze JA et al. Polyvalent melanoma vaccine improves survival of patients with metastasis melanoma. Ann NY Acad Sci 1993; 690: 120–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Mosca PJ, Hobeika AC, Clay TM et al. A subset of human monocyte derived DCs express high levels of IL-12 in response to combined CD40L and gamma interferon treatment. Blood 2000; 96: 3499–504.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Murphy G, Tjoa B, Ragde H et al. Phase I clinical trial: T-cell therapy for prostate cancer using autologous dendritic cells pulsed with HLA-A0201-specific peptides from prostate-specific membrane antigen. Prostate 1996; 29: 371–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Muul LM, Spiess P, Director EP et al. Identification of specific cytolytic immune responses against autologous tumor in humans bearing malignant melanoma. J Immunol 1987; 138: 989–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Nelson WG, Simons JW, Mikhak B et al. Cancer cells engineered to secrete GMCSF using ex-vivo gene transfer as vaccines for the treatment of genitourinary malignancies. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2000; 46: 67–72.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Nencioni A, Brossart P. New perspective in dendritic cell-based cancer immunotherapy. Biodrugs 2001; 15: 667–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Nestle FO, Alijagic S, Gilliet M et al. Vaccination of melanoma patients with peptide-or tumor lysate-pulsed dendritic cells. Nat Med 1998; 4: 328–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Nishizaka S, Gomi S, Harada K et al. A new tumor rejection antigen recognized by CTL infiltrating into lung adenocarcinoma. Cancer Res 2000; 60: 4830–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Oldham RK, Dillman RO, Yannelli JR et al. Continuous infusion interleukin-2 and tumor derived attenuated cells as treatment for advanced solid tumors. J Mol Biother 1991; 3: 68–76.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    O’Rourke MG, Schmidt CW, O’Rourke TR et al. Immunotherapy, including gene therapy, for metastasis melanoma. Aust NZ J Surg 1997; 67: 834–41.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Panelli MC, Bettinotti MP, Lally K et al. A tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte from a melanoma metastasis with decreased expression of melanoma differentiation antigens recognizes MAGE-12. J Immunol 2000; 164: 4382–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Qian HN, Liu GZ, Cao SJ et al. The experimental study of ovarian carcinoma vaccine modified by human B7–1 and IFN-gamma genes. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2002; 12: 80–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Rains N, Cannan RJ, Chen W et al. Development of a dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccine for patients with advanced colorectal cancer. Hepatogastroenterology 2001; 48: 347–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Razzaque A, Dye E, Puri R, Characterization of tumor vaccines during product development. Vaccine 2001; 19: 644–7.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Reichardt VL, Okada CY, Liso A et al. Idiotype vaccination using dendritic cells after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for multiple myeloma–a feasibility study. Blood 1999; 93: 2411–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Renkvist N, Castelli C, Robbins PF, Parmiani G. A listing of human tumor antigens recognized by T cells. Cancer Immunol Immunother 2001; 50: 3–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Robbins PF, El Gamil M, Li YF et al. Cloning of a new gene encoding an antigen recognized by specific HLA-A23 restricted tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. J Immunol 1995; 154: 5944–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Robbins PF, El Gamil M, Li YF et al. A mutated beta catenin gene encodes a melanoma specific antigen recognized by tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. J Exp Med 1996; 183: 1185–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Ropke M, Hald J, Guldberg P et al. Spontaneous human squamous carcinomas are killed by a human cytotoxic T lymphocyte clone recognizing a wild type p53 derived peptide. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1996; 93: 14704–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Rosenberg SA, Lotze M, Muul LM et al. Observations on the systemic administration of autologous LAK cells and recombinant IL-2 to patients with metastasis cancer. N Engl J Med 1985; 313: 1485–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Rosenberg SA, Spiess P, Lafreniere R. A new approach to the adoptive immunotherapy of cancer with tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. Science 1986; 233: 1318–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Rosenberg SA, Lotze M, Muul LM et al. A progress report on the treatment of 157 patients with advanced cancer using LAK cells and IL-2 or high dose IL-2 alone. N Engl J Med 1987; 316: 889–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Rosenberg SA, Packard BS, Aebersold P et al. Use of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and IL-2 in the immunotherapy of patients with metastasis melanoma. A preliminary report. N Engl J Med 1988; 319: 1676–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Rosenberg SA, Anderson WF, Blaese MR et al. Immunization of cancer patients using autologous cancer cells modified by insertion of the gene for tumor necrosis factor. Human Gene Ther 1992; 3: 5764.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Rosenberg SA, Yannelli JR, Yang JC et al. Treatment of patients with metastasis melanoma using autologous tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and interleukin-2. J Nat Cancer Inst 1994; 86: 1159–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Rosenberg SA. Progress in human tumor immunology and immunotherapy. Nature 2001; 411: 380–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Salazar-Onfray F, Nakazawa T, Chhajlani V et al. Synthetic peptides derived from the melanocyte-stimulating hormone receptor MC1 R can stimulate HLA-A2-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes that recognize naturally processed peptides on human melanoma cells. Cancer Res 1997; 57: 4348–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Sallusto F, Lanzavecchia A. Efficient presentation of soluble antigen by cultured human dendritic cells is maintained by granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor plus interleukin 4 and downregulated by tumor necrosis factor alpha. J Exp Med 1994; 179: 1109–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Schwartzentruber DJ, Hom SS, Dadmarz R et al. In vitro predictors of therapeutic response in melanoma patients receiving tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and interleukin-2. J Clin Oncol 1994; 12: 1475–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Schadendorf D, Paschen A, Sun Y. Autologous, allogeneic tumor cells or genetically engineered cells as cancer vaccine against melanoma. Immunol Lett 2000; 74: 67–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Shichijo S, Nakao M, Imai Y et al. A gene encoding antigenic peptides of human squamous cell carcinoma recognized by CTL. J Exp Med 1998; 187: 277–88.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Simons JW. Bioactivity of human GM-CSF gene therapy in metastasis renal cell carcinoma and prostate cancer. Hinyokika Kiyo 1997; 43: 821–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Simons JW, Mikhak B, Chang JF et al. Induction of immunity to prostate cancer antigens: results of a clinical trial of vaccination with irradiated autologous prostate tumor cells engineered to secrete granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor using ex vivo gene transfer. Cancer Res 1999; 59: 5160–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Soiffer R, Lynch T, Mihm M et al. Vaccination with irradiated autologous melanoma cells engineered to secrete human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor generates potent antitumor immunity in patients with metastasis melanoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1998; 95: 13141–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Sule-Suso J, Arienti F, Melani C et al. A B7–1 transfected human melanoma line stimulates proliferation and cytotoxicity of autologous and allogeneic lymphocytes. Eur J Immunol 1995; 25: 2737–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Steinmann RM, Hoffman L, Pope M. Maturation and migration of cutaneous DCs. J Invest Dermatol 1995; 105: 2–7.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Steinman RM, Dhodapkar H. Active immunization against cancer with dendritic cells: the near future. Int J Cancer 2001; 94: 459–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Stevanovic S. Identification of tumor associated T-cell epitopes for vaccine development. Nat Rev Cancer 2002; 2: 514–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Tani K, Nakazaki Y, Hase H et al. Progress report on immune gene therapy for stage IV renal cell cancer using lethally irradiated GMCSF-transduced autologous renal cancer cells. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2000; 46: 7–76.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Tjoa BA, Erickson SJ, Bowes VA et al. Follow-up evaluation of prostate cancer patients infused with autologous dendritic cells pulsed with PSMA peptides. Prostate 1997; 32: 272–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Tjoa BA, Simmons S J, Bowes VA et al. Evaluation of phase I/II clinical trials in prostate cancer with dendritic cells and PSMA peptides. Prostate 1998; 36: 39–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Tjoa BA, Murphy GP. Development of dendritic-cell based prostate cancer vaccine. Immunol Lett 2000; 74: 87–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Topalian SL, Soloman D, Rosenberg SA. Tumor specific cytolysis by lymphocytes infiltrating human melanomas. J Immunol 1989; 142: 3714–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Topalian SL, Rivoltini L, Mancini M et al. Human CD4+ T cells specifically recognize a shared melanoma associated antigen encoded by the tyrosinase gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1994; 91: 9461–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Topalian SL, Gonzales MI, Parkhurst M et al. Melanoma specific CD4+ T cells recognize nonmutated HLA-DR restricted tyrosinase epitopes. J Exp Med 1996; 183: 1965–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Traversari C, van der Bruggen P, Luescher IF. A nonapeptide encoded by human gene MAGE-1 is recognized on HLA-A1 by CTL directed against tumor antigen MZ2-E. J Exp Med 1992; 176: 1453–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Tsang KY, Zaremba S, Nieroda CA et al. Generation of human CTL specific for human carcinoembryonic antigen epitopes from patients immunized with recombinant vaccinia-CEA vaccine. J Natl Cancer Inst 1995; 87: 982–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Van der Bruggen P, Traversari C, Chomez P et al. A gene encoding an antigen recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes on human melanoma. Science 1991; 254: 1643–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Van den Eynde B, Peeters O, De Backer O et al. A new family of genes coding for an antigen recognized by autologous cytolytic T lymphocytes on a human melanoma. J Exp Med 1995; 182: 689–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Van den Eynde BJ, van der Bruggen P. T cell defined tumor antigens. Curr Opin Immunol 1997; 9: 684–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Visseren MJ, van der Burg SH, van der Voort EI et al. Identification of HLA-A*0201-restricted CTL epitopes encoded by the tumor-specific MAGE-2 gene product. Int J Cancer 1997; 73: 125–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Wang RF, Robbins PF, Kawakami Y et al. Identification of a gene encoding a melanoma antigen recognized by HLA-A31 restricted tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. J Exp Med 1995; 181: 799–804.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Wang RF, Parkhurst MR, Kawakami Y et al. Utilization of an alternative open reading frame of a normal gene in generating a novel human cancer antigen. J Exp Med 1996; 183: 1131–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Wang RF, Appella E, Kawakami Y et al. Identification of TRP-2 as a human tumor antigen recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. J Exp Med 1996; 184: 2207–16.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Wang YC, Zhu L, McHugh R et al. Induction of autologous tumor specific T lymphocyte activity against a human renal cell carcinoma cell line by B7.1 (CD80) costimulation. J Immunother 1996; 19: 1–8.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    West WH, Tauer KW, Yannelli JR et al. Constant infusion recombinant IL-2 in adoptive immunotherapy of advanced cancer. N Engl J Med 1987; 316: 898–905.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Wolfel T, Hauer M, Schneider J et al. A p16INK4ainsensitive CDK4 mutant targeted by cytolytic T lymphocytes in a human melanoma. Science 1995; 269: 1281–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Wroblewski JM, Bixby DL, Borowski C et al. Characterization of human non-small cell (NSCLC) lines for expression of MHC, costimulatory molecules and tumor associated antigens. Lung Cancer 2001; 33: 181–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Yang S, Darrow TL, Siegler HF. Generation of primary tumor specific CTL from autologous and human lymphocyte antigen class I matched allogeneic peripheral blood lymphocytes by B7 gene modified melanoma cells. Cancer Res 1997; 57: 1561–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Yannelli JR, Stevenson GW, Stevenson HC. Cancer adoptive immunotherapy. In: Oldham RK, ed. Principles of Cancer Biotherapy. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1991: 503–23.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Yannelli JR, Hyatt C, Johnson S et al. Characterization of human tumor cell lines with the cDNA encoding either tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a or interleukin-2 (IL-2). J Immunol Meth 1993; 161: 77–83.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Yannelli JR, Hyatt C, McConnell S et al. The growth of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes from human solid cancers: summary of a 4 year experience. Int J Cancer 1996; 65: 413–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Yannelli JR, McConnell S, Parker L et al. Tumor reactive lymphocytes from 4 distinct anatomic sites. J Immunother 1996; 18: 263–71.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Yannelli JR. Update on the laboratory aspects of the cellular immunotherapy of human cancer. In: Oldham RK, ed. Principles of Cancer Biotherapy. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998: 376–85.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Yannelli JR, Wroblewski JM, Batson L, Schapker H, Hirschowitz EA. Cytokine profiles of CD14+ monocytes and immature and mature dendritic cells prepared from the peripheral blood of patients with non small cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer 2002 ( Submitted).Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Yannelli JR, Batson L, Bixby D, Copple A, Wroblewski J. Lymphocyte growth and functional reactivity in three anatomic compartments in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). J Immunother 2002 ( Submitted).Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Zhou LJ, Tedder TF. CD14+ blood monocytes can differentiate into functionally mature CD83+ dendritic cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1996; 93: 2588–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joanne M. Wroblewski
  • John R. Yannelli

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations