Disorders involving inorganic ions

  • M. J. Eadie
  • J. H. Tyrer


Inorganic ionic (Na+, Cl, K+) concentration gradients across the outer limiting membranes of neurons and muscle cells determine the excitability of these cells, while calcium ion (Ca2+) concentrations influence neurotransmitter release and also excitation-contraction coupling in muscle. Disturbances in the concentration of these small inorganic anions and cations which are ubiquitously present in body fluids therefore alter neural and muscular functions. The disorders produced by alterations in individual ions will be considered below.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Fishman, R. A. (1976). Neurological manifestations of hyponatremia. In Vinken, P. J. and Bruyn, G. W. (eds.) Handbook of Clinical Neurology. Vol. 28, pp. 495–505. (Amsterdam: North Holland)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Satran, R. and Griggs, R. C. (1979). Metabolic encephalopathy. In Tyler, H. R. and Dawson, D. M. (eds.) Current Neurology. Vol. 2, pp. 474–505. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Swanson, P. D. (1976). Neurological manifestations of hypernatraemia. In Vinken, P. J. and Bruyn, G. W. (eds.) Handbook of Clinical Neurology. Vol. 28, pp. 443–461. (Amsterdam: North Holland)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Young, R. S. K. and Truax, B. T. (1979). Hypernatraemic haemorrhagic encephalopathy. Ann. Neurol., 5, 588–591PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sparacio, R. R., Anziska, B. and Schutta, H. S. (1976). Hypernatremia and chorea: a report of two cases. Neurology, 26, 46–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Reynolds, E. H. (1976). Neurological manifestations of potassium imbalance. In Vinken, P. J. and Bruyn, G. W. (eds.) Handbook of Clinical Neurology, Vol. 28, pp. 463–494. (Amsterdam: North Holland)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Engel, A. G. and Lambert, E. H. (1969). Calcium activation of electrically inexcitable muscle fibres in primary hypokalemic periodic paralysis. Neurology, 19, 851–858PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Pearson, C. M. (1976). The periodic paralyses. In Vinken, P. J. and Bruyn, G. W. (eds.) Handbook of Clinical Neurology. Vol. 28, pp. 581–601. (Amsterdam: North Holland)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Brooke, M. H. (1977). A Clinician’s View of Neuromuscular Diseases. (Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lewis, E. D., Griggs, R. C. and Moxley, R. T. (1979). Regulation of plasma potassium in hyperkalemic periodic paralysis. Neurology, 29, 1131–1137PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Davis, F. A. and Schauf, U. (1976). Neurological manifestations of calcium imbalance. In Vinken, P. J. and Bruyn, G. W. (eds.) Handbook of Clinical Neurology. Vol. 28, pp. 527–542. (Amsterdam: North Holland)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Paymaster, N. J. (1976). Magnesium metabolism: a brief review. Ann. R. Coll. Surg. Engl., 58, 309–314PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Durlach, J. (1976). Neurological manifestations of magnesium imbalance. In Vinken, P. J. and Bruyn, G. W. (eds.) Handbook of Clinical Neurology. Vol. 28, pp. 545–579. (Amsterdam: North Holland)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lockman, L. A. (1976). Neurological aspects of acid-base metabolism. In Vinken, P. J. and Bruyn, G. W. (eds.) Handbook of Clinical Neurology. Vol. 28, pp. 507–525. (Amsterdam: North Holland)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Folbergrová, J., Norberg, K., Quistorff, B. and Siesjo, B. K. (1975). Carbodydrate and amino-acid metabolism in rat cerebral cortex in moderate and extreme hypercapnia. J. Neurochem., 25, 457–462PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sass-Kortsak, A. and Beam, A. G. (1978). Hereditary disorders of copper metabolism (Wilson’s disease (hepatolenticular degeneration) and Menkes’ disease (kinky-hair or steely hair syndrome)). In Stanbury, J. B., Wyngaarten, J. B. and Fredrickson, D. S. (eds.) The Metabolic Basis of Inherited Disease. 4th Edn., pp. 1098–1126. (New York: McGraw-Hill)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Schulman, S. (1968). Wilson’s disease. In Minckler, J. (ed.) Pathology of the Nervous System. Vol. 1, pp. 1139–1152. (New York: McGraw-Hill)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Smith, W. T. (1976). Intoxications, poisons and related metabolic disorders. In Blackwood, W. and Corsellis, J. A. N. (eds.) Greenfield’s Neuropathology. 3rd Edn., pp. 148–193. (London: Arnold)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Barbeau, A. (1981). Treatment of Wilson’s disease. In Barbeau, A. (ed.) Disorders of Movement. pp. 209–220. (Lancaster: MTP Press)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    French, J. H. (1977). X-chromosome-linked copper malabsorption. In Vinken, P. J. and Bruyn, G. W. (eds.) Handbook of Clinical Neurology. Vol. 29, pp. 279–304. (Amsterdam: North Holland)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Morgan, R. F. and O’Dell, B. L. (1977). Effect of copper deficiency on the concentrations of catecholamines and related enzyme activities in the rat brain. J. Neurochem., 28, 207–213.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Grover, W. D., Johnson, W. C. and Henkin, R. I. (1979). Clinical and biochemical aspects of trichopoliodystrophy. Ann. Neurol., 5, 65–71PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Iwata, M., Hirano, A. and French, J. H. (1979). Degeneration of the cerebellar system in X-chromosome-linked copper malabsorption. Ann. Neurol., 5, 542–549PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Williams, R. S., Marshall, P. C. and Caviness, V. S. Jr. (1978). The cellular pathology of Menkes steely hair syndrome. Neurology, 28, 575–583PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Aguilar, M. J., Chadwick, D. L., Okuyama, K. and Kamoshita, S. (1966). Kinky hair disease. 1. Clinical and pathological features. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol., 25, 507–522PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Greenhouse, A. H. (1968). The neuropathology of renal disease. In Minckler, J. H. (ed.) Pathology of the Nervous System. Vol. 1, pp. 1029–1042. (New York: McGraw-Hill)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bolton, C. F. (1976). Electrophysiologic changes in uremic neuropathy after successful renal transplantation. Neurology, 26, 152–161PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Noriega-Sanchez, A., Maldonado-Martinez, M. and Haiffe, R. M. (1978). Clinical and electroencephalographic changes in progressive uremic encephalopathy. Neurology, 28, 667–669PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Glaser, G. H. (1978). Progressive dialysis encephalopathy (dialysis dementia). In Matthews, W. B. and Glaser, G. H. (eds.) Recent Advances in Clinical Neurology. Vol. 2, pp. 14–18. (Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© M. J. Eadie and J. H. Tyrer 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. J. Eadie
    • 1
  • J. H. Tyrer
  1. 1.Department of MedicineUniversity of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia

Personalised recommendations