Advertisement

Sea Level Change, Sediment Mass and Flux and Chemostratigraphy

  • F. T. Mackenzie
Chapter
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (ASIC, volume 304)

Abstract

The Cretaceous preserved rock mass of 40 × 10 16 metric tons represents 22% of the Phanerozoic sedimentary mass. This rock mass is readily accessible in land outcrops and drill holes and in DSDP and ODP drill cores. Thus, Cretaceous sedimentary rocks offer an excellent opportunity to study interrelationships between sediment mass and flux, mineralogy and chemistry. These stratigraphic features are records of atmosphere-ocean change, and hence sea level and climatic change.

In a conceptual model presented in this paper, changes in sedimentary properties through geologic time are related to changes in the ocean-atmosphere-sedimentbiosphere system induced by changes in the plate tectonic regime. The Cretaceous strata are shown to be an excellent system to test this model. Some needs and avenues of research in terms of sediment mass and flux and chemostratigraphy are explored in light of the plate tectonic model. It is suggested that the global sediment mass-age distribution for Cretaceous stages should be generated from syntheses of regional studies. It is argued that this distribution should form the basis of Cretaceous flux estimates and be integrated into chemostratigraphic studies. It is anticipated that following such an approach would lead to a firm framework for interpretation of the Cretaceous history of the exogenic cycle, in particular the carbon cycle. Knowledge of Cretaceous paleo-environmental conditions may be useful in interpretation of potential future climatic change brought about by release of “greenhouse gases” to the atmosphere owing to activities of humankind.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Arthur, M.A., Schianger, S.D. and Jenkyns, H.C. (1985) The Cenomanian-Turonian oceanic anoxic event, 11. Paleoceanographic controls on organic matter production and Preservation“, in J. Brooks and A. Fleet (eds.), Marine Petroleum Source Rocks, Geol. Soc. London Public.Google Scholar
  2. Berner, R.A., Lasaga, A.C. and Garrels, R.M. (1983) “The carbonate-silicate geochemical cycle and its effect on atmospheric carbon dioxide over the past 100 million years”, Am. J. Sci. 283, 641–683.Google Scholar
  3. Chang, H.K., Mackenzie, F.T. and Schoonmaker. J. (1986) “Comparisons between the diagenesis of dioctahedral and trioctahedral smectite, Brazilian offshore basins”, Clay and Clay Mineral. 34, 407–423.Google Scholar
  4. Fischer, A.G. (1982) “Long-term climatic oscillations recorded in stratigraphy”, in J.C. Crowell (ed.) Climate in Earth History. Natl. Acad. Sciences, Washington, D.C., 97–194.Google Scholar
  5. Garrels, R.M. and Mackenzie, F.T. (1971a) “Gregor’s denudation of the continents”, Nature 231, 382. 383.Google Scholar
  6. Garrels, R.M. and Mackenzie, F.T. (1971b) Evolution of Sedimentary Rocks, W.W. Norton. New York.Google Scholar
  7. Garrels, R.M. and Mackenzie, F.T. (1972) “A quantitative model for the sedimentary rock cycle”, Mar. Chem. 1, 27–41.Google Scholar
  8. Garrets, R.M., Lerman, A. and Mackenzie, F.T. (1976) “Controls of atmospheric 02 and CO,; past, present, and future”, Am. Sci. 64, 306–315.Google Scholar
  9. Gregor, C.B. (1970) “Denudation of the continents”, Nature 228, 273–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gregor, C.B. (1985) “The mass-age distribution of Phanerozoic sediments”, in N.J. Smelling (ed.) The Chronology of the Geologic Record, Geol. Soc. London, Memoir 10, 284–289.Google Scholar
  11. Hallam, A. (1977) “Secular changes in marine inundation of USSR and North America through the Phanerozoic”, Nature 269, 769–772.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hallam, A. (1981) Facies Interpretation and the Stratigraphic Record, W.H. Freeman, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  13. Haq, B.U., Hardenbol. J., Vail, P.R., Stover, L.E., Wright, R.C. and Jan du Chene, R. (1987) Cretaceous global cycle chart, from Haq, Bilai, Jan Hardenbol and Peter R. Vail, 1987, The New Chronostratigraphic Basis of Cenozoic and Mesozoic Sea Level Cycles in Ross, Charles and Drew Haman (eds) Timing and Depositional History of Eustatic Sequences: Constraints on Seismic Stratigraphy, Special Publ. 24 Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research pp 7–15.Google Scholar
  14. Hay, W.W., Barron, E.J., Sloan, J.L. and Southam, J.R. (1981) “Continental drift and the global pattern of sedimentation”, Geol. Rundschau. Stuttgart 70, 302–315.Google Scholar
  15. Hays, J.D. and Pitman, W.C. (1973) “Lithospheric plate motion, sea level changes and climatic and ecological consequences”, Nature 246, 18–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lovelock, J.E. and Margulis, L. (1974) “Atmospheric homeostasis by and for the biosphere”, Tellus 26, 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Mackenzie, F.T. and Pigott, J. (1981) “Tectonic control of Phanerozoic rock cycling”, J. Geol. Soc. London 138, 183–196.Google Scholar
  18. Mackenzie, F.T. and Agegian, C. (1989) “Biomineralization and tentative links to place tectonics”, in R.E. Crick (ed.) Origin. Evolution and Modern Aspects of Biomineralization in Plants and Animals, Plenum, New York, 11–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Perry, E. and Hower, J. (1970) “Burial diagenesis in Gulf-Coast pelitic sediments”, Clay and Clay Mineral. 18, 165–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Saint-Exupery, A. de (1943) The Little Prince, Harcourt-Brace, New York. Sandberg, P.A. (1975) “New interpretation of Great Salt Lake ooids and of ancient non-skeletal carbonate mineralogy”. Sedimentology 22, 497–538.Google Scholar
  21. Sloss. L.L. (1976) “Areas and volumes of cratonic sediments. Western North America and Eastern Europe”, Geology 4, 272–276.Google Scholar
  22. Southam, J.R. and Hay, W.W. (1977) “The scales and dynamic models of deep-sea sedimentation”, J. Geophys. Res. 82, 3825–3842.Google Scholar
  23. Steckler, M. (1980) “Changes in sea level”, in H.D. Holland and A.F. Trendall (eds.) Patterns of Change in Earth Evolution. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  24. Tardy, Y. (1987) “Le cycle d l’eau; climats paleoclimats, et geochimie global”.Google Scholar
  25. Turcotte, D.L. and Burke, K. (1978) “Global sea level changes and the thermal structure of the earth”, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 41, 341–356.Google Scholar
  26. Vail, P.R., Mitchum, R.M., Todd, R.G, Widmier, J.M., Thompson, S., Sangree, J.B., Bubb, J.N. and Hatfield, W.G., (1977), Seismic Stratigraphy and global changes of sea level, in Paton, C.E. (ed.) Siesmic Stratigraphy, Applications to Hydrocarbon exploration, Memoir 26, Amer. Assoc. Petrol, Geologists, 49–212.Google Scholar
  27. Veizer, J. (1988) “The evolving exogenic cycle”, in C.B. Gregor, R.M. Garrels, F.T. Mackenzie and J.B. Maynard (eds.) Chemical Cycles in the Evolution of the Earth, Wiley-Interscience. New York, pp. 175–220.Google Scholar
  28. Wilkinson, B.H., Owen, R.M. and Carroll, A.R. (1985) “Submarine hydrothermal weathering, global eustasy, and carbonate polymorphism in Phanerozoic marine oolites”, J. Sediment. Petrol. 55, 171–183.Google Scholar
  29. Wilkinson, B.H. and Given, R.K. (1986) “Secular variation in abiotic marine carbonates: constraints and Phanerozoic carbon dioxide contents and oceanic Mg/Ca ratios”, J Geol. 94, 321–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. T. Mackenzie
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Oceanography and Hawaii Institute of GeophysicsUniversity of HawaiiHonoluluUSA

Personalised recommendations