• Stuart Siddell
  • Steven Myint


The first report of a human coronavirus (HCV) was in 1965 when Tyrrell and Bynoe isolated a virus from nasal washings that had been collected 5 years earlier from a male child [168] in a boarding school [88]. This child had typical symptoms and signs of a common cold and the washing was found to be able to induce common colds in volunteers challenged intranasally. The virus, termed 8814 after the number of the nasal washing, was cultivated in human embryo tracheal organ tissue but not in cell lines used at that time for growing other known aetiological agents of the common cold. The organ culture method was tried because it had already been shown that other respiratory viruses could be propagated in this manner and detected by the cessation of ciliary activity [174]. Hamre and Procknow were simultaneously working on five ‘new’ agents from the respiratory tract of six medical students with colds, collected in 1962 [55]. One of these, strain 229E, was adapted to grow in WI-38 cells. Almeida and Tyrrell showed that these new viruses were morphologically identical to the viruses of avian bronchitis and mouse hepatitis [4]. McIntosh and colleagues working at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, USA then found six morphologically related viruses that could not be adapted to cell monolayer culture but would grow in organ cultures [100]. Two of these isolates, OC (for organ culture) 38 and 43 were then adapted to grow in suckling mouse brain. The term ‘coronavirus’ that described the characteristic morphology of these agents was accepted in 1968 [169].


Multiple Sclerosis Patient Common Cold Infectious Bronchitis Virus Mouse Hepatitis Virus Strain 229E 
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© Chapman & Hall 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stuart Siddell
  • Steven Myint

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