Advertisement

Clinical Spectrum of Disease in Children

  • David Isaacs
Chapter
  • 52 Downloads

Abstract

There have always been problems with the definitions of acute childhood respiratory infections. In 1965, when embarking on a Medical Research Council survey of childhood respiratory infections involving a number of hospitals, Donald Court noted that there was no generally accepted clinical classification of acute respiratory infections in children [11]. Paediatricians thought that they were all diagnosing the same disease, when making a clinical diagnosis, but there was no evidence that this was true. Indeed quite the opposite appeared to be the case when the study was carried out. There was great variation in the diagnostic labels given to children with similar clinical presentations in different institutions that were geographically quite close. In four hospitals, for example, the proportion of all respiratory illnesses diagnosed as either bronchitis or bronchiolitis was almost constant, varying from 59% in Glasgow to 70% in Manchester. However, in Glasgow 52% of all infections were called bronchitis and only 7% called bronchiolitis, whereas in Birmingham the reverse was true: 21% were called bronchitis and 45% bronchiolitis [11]. It seemed highly likely that different diagnostic labels were being applied to infected children in different centres, and that this reflected differing interpretation of signs and local diagnostic preferences.

Keywords

Respiratory Syncytial Virus Acute Otitis Medium Lower Respiratory Tract Infection Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection Common Cold 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Arola, M., Ruuskanen, O., Ziegler, T. et al. (1990) Clinical role of respiratory virus infection in acute otitis media. Pediatrics, 86, 848–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Arola, M., Ziegler, T., Ruuskanen, O. et al. (1988) Rhinovirus in acute otitis media. J. Pediatr., 113, 693–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Arola, M., Ziegler, T. and Ruuskanen, O. (1990) Prolonged respiratory virus infection as a cause of prolonged symptoms in acute otitis media. J. Pediatr., 116, 697–701.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Badger, G.F., Dingle, J.H., Feller, A.E. et al. (1953) A study of illness in a group of Cleveland families. II. Incidence of the common respiratory diseases. Am. J. Hyg., 58, 31–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bettenay, F.A., de Campo, J.F. and McCrossin, D.B. (1988) Differentiating bacterial from viral pneumonia in children. Pediatr. Radiol., 18, 453–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Boesen, I. (1953) Asthmatic bronchitis in children; prognosis for 162 cases, observed 6–11 years. Acta Paediatr. (Uppsala), 42, 87–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Brimblecombe, F.S.W., Cruickshank, R., Masters, P.L. et al. (1958) Family studies of respiratory infections. Br. Med. J., 1, 119–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bynoe, M.L., Hobson, D., Homer, J., Kipps, A., Schild, G.C. and Tyrrell, D.A.J. (1961) Inoculation of human volunteers with a strain of virus isolated from a common cold. Lancet, i, 1194–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chonmaitree, T., Owen, M.J., Patel, J.A. et al. (1992) Effect of viral respiratory tract infection on outcome of acute otitis media. J. Pediatr., 120, 856-62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Colley, J.R.T. and Reid, D.D. (1970) Urban and social origins of childhood bronchitis in England and Wales. Br. Med. J., 2, 213–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Court, S.D.M. (1973) The definition of acute respiratory illnesses in children. Postgrad. Med. J., 49, 771–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Editorial (1988) Splints don’t stop colds - surprising. Lancet, i, 277–8.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fox, J.P., Hall, C.E., Cooney, M.K. et al. (1972). The Seattle virus watch. II. Objectives, study population, and its observation, data processing and summary of illnesses. Am. J. Epidemiol., 96, 270–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Foy, H.M., Cooney, M.K., McMahon, R. et al. (1973) Viral and mycoplasmal pneumonia in a prepaid medical care group during an eight year period. Am. J. Epidemiol., 97, 93–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Frick, O.L., German, D.F. and Mills, J. (1979) Development of allergy in children. I. Association with virus infections. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol., 63, 228–41. 28.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fry, J. (1971) The Cattarrhal Child. Butterworth, London.Google Scholar
  17. 16a.
    Grattan-Smith, T., Forer, M., Kilham, H. and Gillis, J. (1987) Viral supraglottis. Pediatrics, 110, 29. 434–5.Google Scholar
  18. 17.
    Hall, C.B. and Douglas, R.G. Jr (1981) Modes of transmission of respiratory syncytial virus. J. Pediatr., 99, 100–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 18.
    Henderson, F.W., Collier, A.M., Sanyal, M.A. et al. (1982) A longitudinal study of respiratory 30. viruses and bacteria in the etiology of acute otitis media with effusion. N. Engl. J. Med., 306, 1377–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 19.
    Higgins, P.G., Barrow, G.I., Tyrrell, D.A.J., Isaacs, D. and Gauci, C.L. (1990) The efficacy of intranasal interferon a-2a in respiratory syncytial virus infection in volunteers. Antiviral Research, 14, 3–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 20.
    Horn, M.E.C., Brain, E., Gregg, I., Yelland, S.J. and Inglis, J.M. (1975) Respiratory viral infection in childhood. A survey in general practice. Roehampton 1967–1972. J. Hyg. (Camb), 74, 157–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 21.
    Horn, M.E.C., Reed, S.E. and Taylor. P. (1979) Role of viruses and bacteria in acute wheezy bronchitis in childhood: a study of sputum. Arch. Dis. Child., 54, 587–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 22.
    Isaacs, D. (1984) The epidemiology and immunology of the syndrome of recurrent respiratory infections in pre-school children. MD Thesis. Cambridge University, England.Google Scholar
  24. 23.
    Isaacs, D. (1989) Problems in determining the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J., 8, 143–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 24.
    Isaacs, D. (1989) Production of interferon in respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. Arch. Dis. Child., 64, 92–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 25.
    Isaacs, D., Bangham, C.R.M. and McMichael, A.J. (1987) Cell-mediated cytotoxic T-cell response to respiratory syncytial virus. Lancet, ii, 769–71.Google Scholar
  27. 26.
    Isaacs, D., Clarke, J.R., Tyrrell, D.A.J., Webster, A.D.B. and Valman, H.B. (1981) Deficiency of production of leucocyte interferon (interferon- 40. a) in children with recurrent respiratory tract infections. Lancet, ii, 950–2.Google Scholar
  28. 27.
    Isaacs, D., Clarke, J.R., Tyrrell, D.A.J. and Valman, H.B. (1982) Selective infection of lower respiratory tract by respiratory viruses in children with recurrent respiratory tract infections. Br. Med. J., 284, 1746–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 28.
    Isaacs, D., Flowers, D., Clarke, J.R., Valman, H.B. and Macnaughton, M.R. (1983) Epidemiology of coronavirus respiratory infections. Arch. Dis. Child., 58, 500–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 29.
    Isaacs, D., MacDonald, N.E., Bangham, C.R.M., McMichael, A.J., Higgins, P.E. and Tyrrell, D.A.J. (1991) The specific cytotoxic T-cell response of adult volunteers to infection with respiratory syncytial virus. Immunol. Infect. Dis., 1, 5–12.Google Scholar
  31. 30.
    Kemp, A. and Bryan, L. (1984) Perennial rhinitis. A common childhood complaint. Med. J. Aust., 141, 640–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 31.
    Leeder, S.R., Corkhill, R.T., Irwig, L.M., Holland, W.W. and Colley, J.R.T. (1976) Influence of family factors on asthma and wheezing during the first five years of life. Br. J. Prevent. Soc. Med., 30, 213–18.Google Scholar
  33. 32.
    Lovelock, J.E., Porterfield, J.S., Roden, A.T., Somerville, T. and Andrewes, C.H. (1952) Further studies on the natural transmission of the common cold. Lancet, ii, 657–60.Google Scholar
  34. 33.
    Putto, A. (1987) Febrile exudative tonsillitis: viral or streptococcal? Pediatrics, 80, 6–12. 34. Rantala, H., Uhari, M. and Tuokko, H. (1990) Viral infections and recurrences of febrile convulsions. J. Pediatr., 116, 195–9.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ruuskanen, O., Arola, M., Putto-Laurila, A. et al. (1989) Acute otitis media and respiratory virus infections. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J., 8, 94–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ruuskanen, O., Meurman, O. and Sarkkinen, H. (1985) Adenoviral disease in children: a study of 105 hospital cases. Pediatrics, 76, 79–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Stickler, G.B., Hoffman, A.D. and Taylor, W.F. (1984) Problems in the clinical and roentgenographic diagnosis of pneumonia in young children. Clin. Pediatr., 23, 398–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Takala, A.K., Meurman, O., Kleemola, M. et al. (1993) Preceding respiratory infection predisposing for primary and secondary invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b disease. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J., 12, 189–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Wald, E.R. (1992) Sinusitis in children. N. Engl. J. Med., 326, 319–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Wald, E.R., Guema, N. and Byers, C. (1991) Upper respiratory infections in young children: duration of and frequency of complications. Pediatrics, 87, 129–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman & Hall 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Isaacs

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations