Mitochondrial DNA Organization and Function
Mitochondria play a vital role in the generation of energy in all eukaryotic organisms. They possess an outer and inner membrane system, separated by an inter-membrane space, and an internal matrix. They contain their own DNA, enzymes for DNA replication and transcription, and ribosomes and tRNAs for protein synthesis. The 78S ribosomes of mitochondria are different from those in chloroplasts and the cytosol, and a slightly different genetic code is used. Mitochondria synthesize only a relatively small number of polypeptides essential to their role in electron transport and ATP production. The majority are encoded by nuclear DNA, translated in the cytosol on 80S ribosomes, and transported into the mitochondria.
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