Photoreceptors and Photoprocesses in the Living Cell

  • Jerome J. Wolken
Conference paper
Part of the The Jerusalem Symposia on Quantum Chemistry and Biochemistry book series (JSQC, volume 10)


Living organisms from bacteria to man exhibit various kinds of sensitivity to the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum of energy. This is seen in behavior, for an organism will bend, move, or swim toward or away from a light source. Such behavior is described as phototropism and phototaxis. Plant cells utilize solar radiation directly in photosynthesis. In animals, photo-sensory cells evolved, giving rise to eyes and to vision. Other photobiological phenomena are now known, such as photoperiodism and photomorphogenesis, which control many developmental growth processes as well as hormonal stimulation of the sexual cycles, the timing of the flowering of plants, and the color and shade changes in the skin of animals. Also, there is photodynamic action, the photosensitization by a molecule which becomes activated by light and causes destructive photooxidation in the cell, and photoreactivation, the recovery of ultraviolet damage by visible radiation.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Berns, D. S. and J. R. Vaughn (1970). Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 39, 1094.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Carlile, M. J. (1965). Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. 16, 175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Curry, G. M. and K. V. Thimann (1961). In: Progress in Photobiology (B. G. Christensen and B. Buchmann, eds.). Elsevier Publishing Co., New York, 127–134.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Danon, A. and W. Stoekenius (1974). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 71, 1234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Delbrück, M. and W. Shropshire, Jr. (1960). Plant Physiol. 35, 194–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Eversole, R. A. and J. J. Wolken (1958). Science 127, 1287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hatchard, C. G. and C. A. Parker (1956). Proc. R. Soc. (London) A 235, 518–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hubbard, R., P. K. Brown, and D. Bownds (1971). In: Methods in Enzymology (D. B. McCormick and L. D. Wright, eds.) Vol. 18 C, Academic Press, New York, 615–653.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kropf, A. (1976). Nature (London) 264, 92–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nathanson, B., M. Brody, S. Brody, and S. B. Broyde (1967). Photochem. Photobiol. 6, 177–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Oesterhelt, D. and W. Stoeckenius (1971). Nature (London) New Biol. 233, 149–152.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Oesterhelt, D. and W. Stoeckenius (1973). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 70, 2853–2857.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ootaki, T. and J. J. Wolken (1973). J. Cell. Biol. 57, 278–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pagni, P. G., P. Walne, and E. L. Wehry (1976). Photochem. Photobiol. 24, 373–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Thimann, K. V. and G. M. Curry (1960). In: Comparative Biochemistry, Vol. I (M. Florkin and H. J. Mason, eds.) Academic Press, New York, 243–309.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Thornber, J. P., R. P. V. Gregory, C. A. Smith, and J. L. Bailey (1967a). Biochemistry 6, 391–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Thornber, J. P., J. C. Stewart, M. W. C. Hatton, and J. L. Bailey (1967b). Biochemistry 6, 2006–2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wolken, J. J. (1961). Int. Rev. Cytol. 11, 195–218.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wolken, J. J. (1967). Euglena, 2nd ed. Appleton-Century- Crofts, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wolken, J. J. (1969). J. Cell. Biol. 43, 354–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wolken, J. J. (1971). Invertebrate Photoreceptors. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wolken, J. J. (1972). Int. J. Neurosci. 3, 135–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wolken, J. J. (1973). In: Phytochemistry, Vol. 1 (L. P. Miller, ed.) Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 15–37.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wolken, J. J. (1975). Photoprocesses, Photoreceptors, and Evolution. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wolken, J. J. and E. Shin (1958). J. Protozool. 5, 39–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wolken, J. J. and C. S. Nakagawa (1973). Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 54, 1262–1266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jerome J. Wolken
    • 1
  1. 1.Carnegie-Mellon UniversityPittsburghUSA

Personalised recommendations