Advertisement

Structure-Property Relationships and the Environmental Sensitivity of Epoxies

  • Roger J. Morgan
Chapter
Part of the The Development Series book series (POLS, volume 30)

Summary

The structure, deformation and failure process, and the mechanical properties, of amine-cured epoxies are discussed, together with the question of how fabrication and environmental factors can affect resin behaviour.

The nature of the chemical reactions that produce amine-cured epoxide networks, and the chemical and physical features controlling these reactions, are described, together with the physical structural parameters which determine the mechanical response of epoxies in terms of their crosslinked network morphologies and microvoid characteristics. The author discusses critically the mechanisms responsible for heterogeneous crosslinked morphologies, and the techniques for detecting them.

Evidence is presented for the deformation of the epoxies in terms of crazing and shear banding, and consideration is given to the ability of these crosslinked glasses to undergo flow, in terms of incomplete network formation, network morphology, and bond breakage.

Modification of the structure—property relationships by combinations of stress, thermal environment and humidity is discussed.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Air Force durability workshop, September 1975, Battelle Columbus Laboratories, Columbus, Ohio.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Air Force conference on the effects of relative humidity and temperature on composite structures, March 1976, University of Delaware, AFOSR-TR-77-0030 (1977).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Morgan, R. J. and Mones, E. T. Composites Tech. Rev., 1979, 1(4), 18.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    French, D. M., Strecker, R. A. H. and Tompa, A. S. J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 1970, 14, 599.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Horie, K., Hiura, H., Sawada, M., Mita, I. and Kambe, H. J. Polym. Sci., 1970, 8, Part Al, 1357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Acitelli, M. A., Prime, R. B. and Sacher, E. Polymer, 1971, 12, 335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Prime, R. B. and Sacher, E. Polymer, 1972, 13, 455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Morgan, R. J. and O’Neal, J. E. Polym. Plast. Technol. Eng., 1978, 10, 49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Morgan, R. J., O’Neal, J. E. and Miller, D. B. J. Mater. Sci., 1979, 14, 109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Whiting, D. A. and Kline, D. E. J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 1974, 18, 1043.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lee, H. and Neville, K. Handbook of Epoxy Resins, 1967, McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sidyakin, P. V. Vysokomol. Soedin., 1972, A14, 979.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bell, J. P. and Mccavill, W. T. J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 1974, 18, 2243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Morgan, R. J. and O’Neal, J. E. J. Macromoi Sci. Phys., 1978, B15(1), 139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Morgan, R. J. and O’Neal, J. E. Structural parameters affecting the brittleness of polymer glasses and composites in Advances in Chemistry No. 154: Toughness and Brittleness of Plastics, eds. Deanin, R. D. and Crugnola, A. M., 1976, American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Morgan, R. J. and O’Neal, J. E. in Chemistry and Properties of Crosslinked Polymers, ed. Labana, S. S., 1977, Academic Press, New York, p. 289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Morgan, R. J. J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 1979, 23, 2711.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Morgan, R. J. and O’Neal, J. E. J. Mater. Sci., 1977, 12, 1966.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Narracott, E. Brit. Plast., 1953, 26, 120.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nielsen, L. E. J. Macromol. Sci., Rev. Macromol. Chem., 1969, C3(1), 69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Nielsen, L. E. Crosslinking-effect on physical properties of polymers, 1968, Monsanto/Washington University/ONR/ARPA Association, Report HPC-68-57.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Manson, J. A., Kim, S. L. and Sperling, L. H. Influence of crosslinking on the mechanical properties of high Tg polymers, 1976, Technical Report AFML-TR-76-124, for US Air Force Materials Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, by Materials Research Center, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pa. Available from National Technical Information Service, Arlington, Va., Document AD-A033078.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Carswell, T. S. Phenoplasts, 1947, Interscience, New York.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rochow, T. G. and Rowe, F. G. Anal. Chem., 1949, 21, 261.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Spurr, R. A., Erath, E. H., Myers, H. and Pease, D. C. Ind. Eng. Chem., 1957, 49, 1839.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Erath, E. H. and Spurr, R. A. J. Polym. Sci., 1959, 35, 391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Rochow, T. G. Anal. Chem., 1961, 33, 1810.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Erath, E. H. and Robinson, M. J. Polym. Sci 1963, 3, Part C, 65.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wohnsiedler, H. P., J. Polym. Sci., 1963, 3, Part C, 77.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Solomon, D. H., Loft, B. C. and Swift, J. D. J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 1967, 11, 1593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Cuthrell, R. E. J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 1967, 11, 949.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Neverov, A. N., Birkina, N. A., Zherdev, Yu V. and Kozlov, V. A. Vysokomol. Soedin., 1968, A10, 463.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Nenkov, G. and Mikhailov, M. Makromol. Chem., 1969, 129, 137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kenyon, A. S. and Nielsen, L. E. J. Macromol. Sci., Chem., 1969, A3(2), 275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Turner, D. T. and Nelson, B. E. J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Phys. ed., 1972, 10, 2461.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Basin, V. Ye., Korunskii, L. M., Shokalskaya, O. Y. and Aleksandrov, N. V. Poly. Sci. USSR, 1972, 14, 2339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kessenikh, R. M., Korshunova, L. A. and Petrov, A. V. Polym. Sci. USSR, 1972, 14, 466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Bozveliev, L. G. and Mihajlov, M. G. J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 1973, 17, 1963; J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 1973, 17, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Morgan, R. J. and O’Neal, J. E. Polym. Preprints, 1975, 16(2), 610.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Selby, K. and Miller, L. E. J. Mater. Sci., 1975, 10, 12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Karyakina, M. I., Mogilevich, M. M., Maiorova, N. V. and Udalova, A. V. Vysokomol. Soedin., 1975, A17, 466.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Maiorova, M. V., Mogilevich, M. M., Karyakina, M. I. and Udalova, A. V. Vysokomol. Soedin., 1975, A17, 471.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Smartsev, V. M., Chalykh, A. Ye., Nenakhov, S. A. and Sanzharovskii, A. T. Vysokomol. Soedin., 1975, A17, 836.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Morgan, R. J. and O’Neal, J. E. Polym. Plast. Technol. Eng., 1975, 5(2), 173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Racich, J. L. and Koutsky, J. A. J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 1976, 20, 2111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Manson, J. A., Sperling, L. H. and Kim, S. L. Influence of crosslinking on the mechanical properties of high Tg polymers, 1977, Technical Report, AFML-TR-77-109, for US Air Force Materials Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio by Materials Research Center, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pa. Available from National Technical Information Service, Arlington, Va., Document AD-A054431.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Luettgert, K. E. and Bonart, R. Prog. Colloid. Polym. Sci., 1978, 64, 38.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Dusek, K., Plestil, J., Lednicky, F. and Lunak, S. Polymer, 1978, 19, 393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Schmid, R. Prog. Colloid. Polym. Sci., 1978, 64, 17.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Funke, W. Chimia 1968, 22, 111.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Funke, W., Beer, W. and Seitz, U. Prog. Colloid. Polym. Sci., 1975, 57, 48.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Bell, J. P. J. Polym. Sci., 1970, 8, Part A2, 417.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Hull, D. Acta. Met., 1960, 8, 11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Mills, N. J. J. Mater. Sci., 1976, 11, 363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Levy, R. L. and Fanter, D. L. Polymer Preprints, 1979, 20(2), 543.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Gledhill, R. A., Kinloch, A. J. and Shaw, S. J. J. Mater. Sci., 1969, 14, 1769.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Morgan, R. J., O’Neal, J. E. and Fanter, D. L. J. Mater. Sci., (in press).Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Verette, R. M. Temperature/humidity ejfects on the strength of graphite/epoxy laminates, 1975, A1AA Paper No. 75-1011.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Mckague, E. L., Jr., Halkias, J. E. and Reynolds, J. D. J. Compos. Mater., 1975, 9, 2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Browning, C. E. Ph.D. thesis, University of Dayton, Dayton, Ohio, 1976.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Hedrick, I. G. and Whiteside, J. B. Effects of Environment on Advanced Composite Structures in AIAA Conference on aircraft composites: the emerging methodology of structural assurance, 1977, San Diego, Calif., Paper No. 77-463.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Mckague, E. L. Chapter 5 in Proceedings of Conference on Environmental Degradation of Engineering Materials’, eds. Louthan, M. R. and McNitt, R. P., 1977, Virginia Polytechnic Inst. Printing Dept., Blacksburg, Virginia, p.353.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Browning, C. E., The mechanism of elevated temperature property losses in high performance structural epoxy resin matrix materials after exposure to high humidity environments, 22nd National SAMPE Symposium and Exhibition, San Diego, Calif., 1977, 22, 365.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Advanced Composite Materials—Environmental Ejfects, ASTM STP 658, ed. Vinson, J. P., 1978, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, Pa.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Applied Science Publishers Ltd 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roger J. Morgan
    • 1
  1. 1.Lawrence Livermore LaboratoryUniversity of CaliforniaUSA

Personalised recommendations