Almost all calculi are composed of urinary waste products such as calcium oxalate, ammonium magnesium phosphate or uric acid; less than 0.1% contain, in addition, constituents such as haematin, fibrin, bilirubin and sulphonamide. As the vast majority of calculi contain calcium they are radio-opaque, to a degree dependent upon the percentage of calcium present.
KeywordsCalcium Oxalate Renal Calculus Renal Tubular Acidosis Renal Colic Urinary Calculus
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