Differential lung ventilation
The isolation of gas flow to the right and left lung was introduced in 1932 by Jacobaeus et al.  to study unilateral lung function (bronchospirometry). The ease of performing bronchospirometry was enhanced by Carlens’ development of a practical, two- luman endotracheal tube . The unpleasantness of awake endotracheal intubation has prompted newer noninvasive methods to assess unilateral lung function ; bronchospirometry has essentially been abandoned as a diagnostic tool. However, the Carlens-type tube was quickly introduced to thoracic surgery anesthesia . The isolation of the two lungs during surgery allowed one-lung anesthesia, giving protection to the unoperated lung from blood, secretions and pus; a quiet operating field; and preservation of gas flow to the unoperated lung during tracheal and bronchial resections or with bronchopleural fistulae repair.
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