Applications of Ultraviolet Microscopy to Polymers

  • N. C. Billingham
  • P. D. Calvert


Optical microscopy using ultraviolet (UV) light can be applied to any sample in which features of interest are, or can be made to be, UV absorbing or fluorescent. The use of UV microscopy in non-polymer applications is briefly reviewed and the optical requirements for the technique are described. Quantitative analysis of experimental data can increase the utility of the method and the appropriate methods are discussed.

A number of applications of the UV microscope to studies of polymers is discussed and illustrated, viz: 1. studies of the rejection of UV absorbing additives by the growing spherulites, during melt crystallisation, which allows determination of the diffusion coefficients of the additives; 2. measurements of the diffusion rates of additives into solid polymers by microscopy of thin sections, using UV absorbing penetrants; 3. studies of the morphology of polymers by using the fact that UV absorbing additives are concentrated in the amorphous phase of the polymer and can be used to reveal its distribution; 4. studies of the mixing and interpenetration of polymers, made possible by covalent bonding of fluorescent centres to one polymer; 5. studies of the distribution of oxidative degradation in polymers by reaction of oxidation products with reagents which produce UV absorption. The latter work has lead to the direct observation of the catalytic role of residues from the polymerisation process in polypropylene oxidation.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    KOHLER, A., Z. Wiss. Microskopie, 1904, 21, 129, 275.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    FREED, J. J., in: Physical Techniques in Biological Research, 2nd Edn, vol. IIIc, A. W. Pollister, Ed., 1969, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    BLOUT, E. R., in: Advances in Biological and Medical Physics, vol. III, J. H. Lawrence and C. A. Tobias, Eds., 1953, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zworykin, V. K. and Hatke, F. L., Science, 1957, 126, 805.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    WITTE, S., Blut, 1968, 8, 81.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    O’CONNOR, K. and CALVERT, P. D., Unpublished results.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    SCHAELIKE, W., BUDER, W., GALLOWSKI, E. and SCHMIDT, J., Studia. Biophysica, 1973, 41, 67; Chem. Abs., 1973, 80: 130073.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Borovikov, Yu. S., Chernogryadskaya, N. A., Bogdanova, M. S., Rozanov, Yu. M. and Kirillina, V. P., Tsitologiya, 1976, 18, 1371; Chem. Abs., 86:-27051, 86: 53285, 86: 136730, 87: 3757.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Scott, J. A. N., Procter, A. R., Fergus, B. J. and Goring, D. A. I., Wood Sci. Tech., 1969, 3, 73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fergus, B. J., Procter, A. R., Scott, J. A. N. and Goring, D. A. I., Wood Sci. Tech., 1969, 3, 117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wood, J. R. and Goring, D. A. I., Pulp Paper Mag. Canada., 1971, 72, T95.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fergus, B. J. and Goring, D. A. I., Holzforschung, 1970, 24, 118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    GORING, D. A. I., TAPPI Spec. Tech. Ass., Publ, 1972, 8, 107.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Musha, Y. and Goring, D. A. I., Wood Sci. Tech., 1975, 9, 45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cheng, L., Douek, M. and Goring, D. A. I., Limnol. Oceanog., 1978, 23, 554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Harris, P. J. and Hartley, R. D., Nature, 1976, 59, 508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    KAM, Z., SHORE, H. B. and FEHER, G., J. Mol. Biol., 1978, 123, 539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    GRUM-GRZHIMAILO, S. V. and RAZUMNAYA, E. G., Chem. Abs., 74: 14835.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Teichmuller, M. and Wolf, M. J., Microscopy, 1977, 109, 49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gilbert, L. A., Fuel, 1960, 39, 393.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ergun, S., Martney, J. T. and Walline, R. E., Nature, 1960, 187, 1014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Carl Zeiss (Oberkochen) Ltd, Reprint K41–870. Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Takayi, M. and Lang, A. R., Proc. Roy. Soe. A., 1964, 281, 310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    FORTY, A. J., Phil. Mag., 1964, 9, 673.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Forty, A. J. and Woodruff, D. P., Tech. Metals Res., 1968, 2, 97.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wood, J. R. and Goring, D. A. I., J. Microscopy, 1974, 100, 105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    PASSNER, A., Rev. Sci. Instr., 1976, 47, 1221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    RYAN, T. G., CALVERT, P. D. and BILLINGHAM, N. C., A.C.S. Adv. Chem. Ser., 1978, 169, 261.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Perrish, J. A., Anderson, R. R., Urbach, F. and Pitts, D., UVA, 1978. Plenum Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Barer, R. and Wardley, J., Nature, 1961, 192.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    HEIMANN, W., in: Laser ‘75 Optoelectronics Conference Proceedings W. Waidelich, Ed., 1961, IPC Press, London.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kodak Ltd, Kodak Data Sheet SC4, London.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    LAWSON, D., Photomicrography, 1972, Academic Press, New York, p. 236.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    CALVERT, P. D. and RYAN, T. G., Polymer, 1978, 19, 611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    CARLSSON, D. J., GARTON, A. and WILES, D. M., in: Developments in Polymer Stabilisation2, G. Scott, Ed., 1979, Applied Science, London, p. 219.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    CURSON, A. D., Proc. Roy. Microsc. Soc., 1972, 7, 96.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    FRANK, H. P. and LEHNER, H., J. Polymer Sci. Symp., 1970, 31, 193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    BARNES, W. J., LUETZEL, W. G. and PRICE, F. P., J. Phys. Chem., 1961, 65, 1742.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    KEITH, F. D. and PADDEN, F. J. JR., J. Appl. Phys., 1959, 30, 1479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    KEITH, H. D. and PADDEN, F. J. JR., J. Appl. Phys., 1964, 35, 1270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    HANSEN, R. H. in: Thermal Stability of Polymers, R. T. Conley, Ed., 1970, Marcel Dekker, New York, p. 153.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Michaels, A. S. and Bixler, H. J., J. Polymer Sci., 1961, 50, 393, 413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Billingham, N. C., Prentice, P. and Walker, T. J., Polymer. Sci. Symp., 1976, 57, 287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    RYAN, T. G., DPhil. Thesis, University of Sussex, 1980.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    CRANK, J., Mathematics of Diffusion, 2nd Edn, 1975, Clarendon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    ROE, R-J., BAIR, H. E. and GIENIEWSKI, C., Appl. Polymer Sci., 1974, 18, 843.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Billingham, N. C., Calvert, P. D. and Manke, A. S., J. Appl. Polymer. Sci., in press.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    KLEIN, J. and BRISCOE, B. J., Polymer. 1976, 17, 481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    See for example, KELLER, A., J. Polymer Sci., 1955, 17, 291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Nishijima, Y., J. Polymer Sci. Symp., 1970, 31, 353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    CANTOR, S. E., A.C.S. Adv. Chem. Ser., 1978, 169, 253.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    See for example, BILLINGHAM, N. C. and CALVERT, P. D., in: Developments in Polymer Stabilisation—3, G. Scott, Ed., 1980, Applied Science, London, Chapter 5; see also reference 35.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    BILLINGHAM, N. C. and MANKE, A. S., Unpublished results.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Johnson, M. and Williams, M. E., Eur. Polymer J., 1976, 12, 843.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Burfield, D. R. and Law, K. S., Polymer, 1979, 20, 620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Billingham, N. C., Calvert, P. D., Knight, J. B. and Ryan, T. G., Brit polymer J., 1979, 11, 155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Applied Science Publishers Ltd 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. C. Billingham
    • 1
  • P. D. Calvert
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Molecular SciencesUniversity of SussexBrightonUK

Personalised recommendations