Migration in South Asia: An Overview

  • Ronald Skeldon
Part of the GeoJournal Library book series (GEJL, volume 3)


This chapter is concerned with contemporary mobility of population as reflected in population censuses and surveys reaching back into the 1950s. The discussion is divided into five sections: overall spatial patterns of flows, rural transfers, movements to urban destinations, circulation and characteristics of migrants. The author expects migration to be of great importance in the coming decades.


Urban Population Internal Migration Urban Growth Natural Increase Urban Migration 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Afzal, M.; Abbasi, H. n.d.: Urbanization and Internal Migration in Pakistan 1951–73. Pakistan Institute of Development Economics mimeo.Google Scholar
  2. Arriaga, E.: Selected measures of urbanization. In: Goldstein, S.; Sly, D.F. (eds.) The Measurement of Urbanization and Projection of Urban Population, pp. 19–87. Ordina Editions, Liege 1975.Google Scholar
  3. ADB: Key Indicators of Developing Member Countries. Vol. 11, Asian Development Bank, Manila 1980.Google Scholar
  4. Bairoch, P.: Urban Unemployment in Developing Countries, International Labour Organisation, Geneva 1973.Google Scholar
  5. Bangladesh: Population Census of Bangladesh, 1974, National Volume, Report and Tables, Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, Dacca 1977.Google Scholar
  6. Banister, J.; Thapa, S.: The population dynamics of Nepal. Papers of the EastWest Population Institute (1981)Google Scholar
  7. Bogue, D.J.; Zachariah, K.C.: Urbanization and migration in India. In: Turner, R. (ed.) India’s Urban Future, pp. 27–54. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles 1962.Google Scholar
  8. Bose, A.: Urbanization in India: a demographic perspective, In: Goldstein, S.; Sly, D.F. (eds.) Patterns of Urbanization: Comparatative Country Studies, pp. 289–339. Ordina Editions, Liege 1977.Google Scholar
  9. Bose, A.: India’s Urbanization: 1901–2001. 2nd revised edition, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi 1980.Google Scholar
  10. Burki, S.J.: Migration, urbanization and politics in Pakistan. In: Wriggins, W.H.; Guyot, J. (eds.) Population, Politics and the Future of Southern Asia, pp. 147–189. Columbia University Press, New York 1973.Google Scholar
  11. Cassen, R.H.: India: Population, Economy, Society, Holmes and Meier, New York 1978.Google Scholar
  12. Chapman, M.; Prothero, R.M. (eds.): Circulation: Population Movement in Developing Countries. Routlege and Kegan Paul, forthcoming, LondonGoogle Scholar
  13. Chaudhury, R.H.: Determinants and consequences of rural outmigration from some villages in Bangladesh. The Oriental Geographer 22, 1–20 (1978)Google Scholar
  14. Chaudhury, R.H.: Urbanization in Bangladesh. Centre for Urban Studies, Dacca 1980.Google Scholar
  15. Chaudhury, R.H.; Curlin, G.C.: Dynamics of migration in a rural area of Bangladesh. The Bangladesh Development Studies 3, 181–230 (1975)Google Scholar
  16. Connell, J. et al: Migration from Rural Areas: The Evidence from Village Studies. Oxford University Press, New Delhi 1976a.Google Scholar
  17. Connell, J. et al.: Village Studies: Data Analysis and Bibliography. Vol. 1: India 1950–1975. Institute of Development Studies. University of Sussex, 1976b.Google Scholar
  18. Conway, D.; Shrestha, N.: Urban growth and urbanization in least-developed countries: the experience of Nepal, 1952–71. Asian Profile 8, 477–494 (1980)Google Scholar
  19. Davis, K: The Population of India and Pakistan. Princeton University Press, Princeton 1951.Google Scholar
  20. Deshmukh, M.B.: Delhi: a study of floating migration. In: The Social Implications of Industralization and Urbanization, pp. 143–225. UNESCO Research Centre on the Social Implications of Industrialization in Southern Asia, Calcutta 1956.Google Scholar
  21. Dodge, C.P.; Wiebe, P.D.: Tamil repatriates in Madurai: problems and prospects. Economic and Political Weekly 16, 159–162 (1981).Google Scholar
  22. Eames, E.: Some aspects of urban migration from a village in north central India, Eastern Anthropologist, 8, 13–26 (1954)Google Scholar
  23. ESCAP: Migration, Urbanization and Development in Sri Lanka. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok 1980a.Google Scholar
  24. ESCAP: Population of Nepal. Country Monograph Series No. 6, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok 1980b.Google Scholar
  25. ESCAP: Population of Bangladesh. Country Monograph Series No. 7, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok 1981.Google Scholar
  26. Farmer, B.H.: Pioneer Peasant Colonization in Ceylon: A Study in Asian Agrarian Problems. Oxford University Press, London 1957.Google Scholar
  27. Farmer, B.H.: Agricultural Colonization in India since Independence. Oxford University Press, London 1974.Google Scholar
  28. Findley, S.E. et al.: Rural Development, Migration and Fertility: What Do We Know? United States Agency for International Development, Office of Rural Development and Development Administration, Washington 1979.Google Scholar
  29. Friedmann, J.: Urbanization, Planning, and National Development. Sage, Beverly Hills 1973,Google Scholar
  30. Friedmann, J.; Wulff, R.: The Urban Transition: Comparative Studies of Newly Industrializing Societies. Edward Arnold, London 1975.Google Scholar
  31. Goldstein, S.: Circulation in the context of total mobility in Southeast Asia. Papers of the East-West Population Institute, 53 (1978)Google Scholar
  32. Gosal, G.; Krishnan, G.: Patterns of internal migration in India. In: Kosinski, L.A.; Prothero, R.M. (eds.) People on the Move: Studies on Internal Migration, pp. 193–206, London 1975.Google Scholar
  33. Harvey, M.E.; Riddell, J.B.: Development, urbanization and migration: a test of a hypothesis in the Third World. In: Kosinski, L.A.; Prothero, R.M. (eds.) People on the Move: Studies on Internal Migration, pp. 51–65, Methuen, London 1979.Google Scholar
  34. Hugo, G.: Population Mobility in West Java. Gadjah Mada University Press. Yogyakarta 1978.Google Scholar
  35. India: Census of India 1971, Series A-India, Part II-D(i), Migration Tables. Office of the Registrar General, New Delhi 1977.Google Scholar
  36. India: Census of India 1971, Paper No. 2 of 1979, Migration in India. Office of the Registrar General, New Delhi 1979.Google Scholar
  37. Institute for Economic Research: Rural-Urban Migration and Pattern of Employment in India. Osaka City University, Osaka 1980.Google Scholar
  38. IUSSP: Recent and projected trends in world urbanization. In: Goldstein, S.; Sly, D.F. (eds.) Patterns of Urbanization: Comparative Country Studies, pp. 41–92, Ordina Editions, Liege 1977.Google Scholar
  39. Ishwaran, K: Tradition and Economy in Village India. Routledge and Kegan Paul, London 1966.Google Scholar
  40. Karim, M.S.; Shah, N.M.: Migration, Urban Growth and Government Policies in Pakistan. Paper prepared for the Conference on Urbanization and National Development. East-West Center, Honolulu, January 25–29, 1982.Google Scholar
  41. Kothari, D.K.: Patterns of rural-urban migration: a case study of four villages in Rajasthan, India, unpublished PhD dissertation, The Australian National University, Canberra 1980.Google Scholar
  42. Krishnan, P.; Rowe, G.: Internal migration in Bangladesh. Rural Demography (Bangladesh) 5, 1–23 (1978)Google Scholar
  43. Lambert, R.D.: The impact of urban society upon village life. In: Turner, R. (eds.) India’s UrbanGoogle Scholar
  44. Futuree, pp. 117–140, University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles 1962.Google Scholar
  45. Lewandowski, S. Migration and Ethnicity in Urban India. Manohar, New Delhi 1980.Google Scholar
  46. Libee, M.J.; Sopher, D.E.: Marriage migration in rural India. In: Kosinski, L.A.; Prothero, R.M. (eds.) People on the Move: Studies on Internal Migration, pp. 193–206, Methuen, London 1975.Google Scholar
  47. Lipton, M.: Why Poor People Stay Poor: Urban Bias in World Development. Temple Smith, London 1977.Google Scholar
  48. May, R.J.; Skeldon, R.: Internal migration in Papua New Guinea: an introduction to its description and analysis. In: May, R. (ed.) Change and Movement: Readings on Internal Migration in Papua New Guinea, pp. 1–26, Australian National University Press, Canberra 1977.Google Scholar
  49. McGee, T.G.: Rural-urban mobility in South and Southeast Asia: different formulations different answers. In: McNeil, W.H.; Adams, R.S. (eds.) Human Migration: Patterns and Policies, pp. 199–224, Indiana University Press, Bloomington 1978.Google Scholar
  50. Nepal: The Analysis of the Population Statistics of Nepal. Central Bureau of Statistics, Kathmandu 1977.Google Scholar
  51. Oberai, A.S.; Singh, H.K.M.: Migration, remittances and rural development: findings of a case study in the Indian Punjab. International Labour Review 119, 229–241 (1980)Google Scholar
  52. Omvedt, G.: Migration in colonial India: the articulation of feudalism and capitalism by the colonial state. Journal of Peasant Studies 8, 185–212 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Pakistan, n.d.: Housing, Economic and Demographic Survey, 1973, Volume II, Part I, Statistical Tables Pakistan. Census Organization, Interior Division, Islamabad.Google Scholar
  54. Papanek, G.F.: Pakistan’s Development: Social Goals and Private Incentives. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass. 1967.Google Scholar
  55. Premi, M.K.: Outmigration from urban areas: a case study of an Indian town. In: Richmond, A.H.; Kubat, D. (eds.) Internal Migration: The New World and the Third World, pp. 103–115, Sage, Beverly Hills 1976.Google Scholar
  56. Premi, M.K.: Aspects of female migration in India. Economic and Political Weekly 15, 714–720 (1980a)Google Scholar
  57. Premi, M.K.: Urban Outmigration: A Study of Its Nature, Causes and Consequences. Sterling Publishers, New Delhi 1980b.Google Scholar
  58. Premi, M.K.: The demographic situation in India. Papers of the East-West Population Institute 80 (1982)Google Scholar
  59. Preston, S.N.: Urban growth in developing countries: a demographic reappraisal. Population and Development Review 5, 195–215 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Rana, R.S.J.B.; Thapa, Y.S.: Population migration: nature and scope. In: Upadhyaya, D.C.; Abueva, J.V. (eds.) Population and Development in Nepal, pp. 43–77, Tribhuvan Press, Kathmandu 1975.Google Scholar
  61. Richards, S.F.: Geographic mobility of industrial workers in India: a case study of four factory labour forces. In: Dwyer, D.J. (ed.) The City as a Centre of Change in Asia, pp. 72–95, Hong Kong University Press, Hong Kong 1972.Google Scholar
  62. Rowe, W.L.: Caste, kinship and association in urban India. In: Southall, A. (ed.) Urban Anthropology Cross Cultural Studies of Urbanization, pp. 211–249, Oxford University Press, New York 1973.Google Scholar
  63. Roy, B.K. Geographic Distribution of Internal Migration in India. Registrar General and Census Commissioner for India, New Delhi 1979.Google Scholar
  64. Saxena, D.P.: Rururban Migration in India: Causes and Consequences. Popular Prakashan, Bombay 1977.Google Scholar
  65. Simmons, A.; Diaz-Briquets, S.; Laquian, A.A.: Social Change and Internal Migration: A Review of Research Findings from Africa, Asia, and Latin America. International Development Research Centre, Ottawa 1977.Google Scholar
  66. Skeldon, R.: The evolution of migration patterns during urbanization in Peru. Geographical Review 67, 396–411 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Sri Lanka: Census of Population 1971 Sri Lanka: General Report. Department of Census and Statistics, Colombo 1978.Google Scholar
  68. Tinker, H.: The Banyan Tree. Oxford University Press, Oxford 1977.Google Scholar
  69. Todaro, M.P.: A model of labour migration and urban unemployment in less developed countries. The American Economic Review 59, 138–148 (1969)Google Scholar
  70. Todaro, M.P.: Urbanization in Developing Countries: Trends, Prospects and Policies. The Population Council, Center for Policy Studies, Working Paper No. 50, 1979.Google Scholar
  71. Tuladhar, J.M.; Gubhaju, B.B.; Stoeckel, J.: The Population of Nepal: Structure and Change. Center for South and Southeast Asian Studies, Research Monograph No. 17, Berkeley 1977.Google Scholar
  72. United Nations: World Population Trends and Policies, 1979, Monitoring Report. Volume 1: Population Trends. New York Department of International Economic and Social Affairs, Population Studies No. 70, 1980a.Google Scholar
  73. United Nations: National Experience in the Formulation and Implementation of Population Policy, 1960–1978: Nepal. New York 1980b.Google Scholar
  74. Weiner, M.: The political demography of Nepal. Asian Survey 13, 617–630 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Weiner, M.: Sons of the Soil: Migration and Ethnic Conflict in India. Princeton University Press, Princeton 1978.Google Scholar
  76. Wiser, W.H.; Wiser, C.V.: Behind Mud Walls 1930–1960. University of California Press, Berkeley 1967.Google Scholar
  77. Zachariah, K.C.: A Historical Study of Internal Migration in the Indian Sub-continent 1901–1931. Asia Publishing House, Bombay 1964.Google Scholar
  78. Zachariah, K.C.: Bombay migration study; a pilot analysis of migration to an Asian metropolis. Demography 3, 378–392 (1966)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Zachariah, K.C.; Ambannavar, J.P.: Population redistribution in India: inter-state and rural-urban. In: Bose, A. (ed.) Patterns of Population Change In India 1951–61, pp. 93–106, Allied Publishers, Bombay 1967.Google Scholar
  80. Zelinsky, W.: The hypothesis of the mobility transition. Geographical Review 61, 219–249 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ronald Skeldon
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Geography and GeologyUniversity of Hong KongHong Kong

Personalised recommendations