Advertisement

Radiation Degradation of Poly(Olefin Sulphone)s—Fundamental Research to Practical Applications

  • Murrae J. Bowden
  • James H. O’Donnell
Chapter

Summary

The degradation of poly(olefin sulphone)s by high energy radiation, particularly by γ-rays and electron beams, provides a fascinating example of the application of fundamental science to high technology industry. Scientific interest in the radiation degradation of these polymers was first aroused by the discovery that they underwent highly specific bond scission in the backbone chain as the primary result of absorption of high energy radiation and in fact they were the first polymers in which such an effect had been demonstrated. This conclusion was initially based mainly on evidence from electron spin resonance spectroscopy and was subsequently verified by studies of molecular weight changes. These studies showed that the poly(olefin sulphone)s not only degraded by main chain scission but were also among the most radiation-sensitive polymers known.

The extremely high sensitivity of poly (olefin sulphone)s to radiation- induced main-chain scission has found application in the field of micro-electronics. Electron beam writing on poly(olefin sulphone) films is used to produce lithographic masks for the manufacture of integrated circuits on silicon wafers. Poly(1-butene sulphone) (PBS) is currently used in the production of a substantial proportion of the masks for the industry.

It is the purpose of this paper to review the fundamental aspects of the radiation degraration of poly(olefin sulphone)s along with the practical applications to high technology stemming from the fundamental science.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Ivin, K. J. and Rose, J. B., Adv. Macromol. Chem., 1 (1968), 335.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tokura, N., In: Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Technology, Vol. 9, ed. H. Mark, New York, Interseience, 1968, p. 460.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Fettes, E. M. and Davis, F. O., In: High Polymers, Vol. 13, eds R. A. V. Raff and K. Doak, New York, Interseience, 1962, p. 225.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Colombo, P., Fontana, J. and Steinberg, M., J. Polym. Sci., Part A-l, 6 (1968), 3201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Brown, J. R. and O’Donnell, J. H., J. Polym. Sci., Part A-l, 10 (1972), 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Noshay, A. and Price, C. C, J. Polym. Sci., 54 (1961), 533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ivin K. J., Lillie, E. D. and Petersen, I. H., Makromol. Chem.. 168 (1973), 217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Corno, C. and Roggero, A., Europ. Polym. J., 12 (1976), 159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fawcett, A. H., Heatley, F., Ivin, K. J., Stewart, C. D. and Watt, P., Macromolecules, 10 (1977), 765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ivin, K. J. and Walker, N. A., J. Polym. Sci., Part B, 9 (1971), 901.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ryden, L. L. and Marvel, C. S., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 58 (1936), 2047.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ovenall, D. W., Sudol, R. S. and Cabat, G. A., J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Chem. Ed., 11 (1973), 233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cais, R. E. and O’Donnell, J. H., Macromolecules, 9 (1976), 279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cais, R. E., O’Donnell, J. H. and Bovey, F. A., Macromolecules, 10 (1977), 254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cais, R. E. and Stuk, G. J., Macromolecules, 13 (1980), 415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cais, R. E. and Stuk, G.J., Polymer, 19 (1978), 179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hazell, J. E. and Ivin, K. J., Trans. Faraday Soc., 58 (1962), 176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hazell, J. E. and Ivin, K. J., Trans Faraday Soc., 58 (1962), 342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hazell, J. E. and Ivin, K. J., Trans Faraday Soc., 61 (1965), 2330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gipstein, E., Moreau, W., Chiu, G. and Need, O. U., J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 21 (1977), 677.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Stille, J. K. and Thomson, D. W., J. Polym. Sci., 62 (1962), S 118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Stille, J. K. and Empen, J. A., In: The Chemistry of Sulfides, ed. A. V. Tobolsky, New York, Interscience, 1968, p. 125.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Foldi, V. S. and Sweeny, W., Makromol. Chem., 72 (1964), 208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Marvel, C. S. and Aldrich, P. H., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 75 (1953), 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wellisch, E., Gipstein, E. and Sweeting, O. J., J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 8 (1964), 1623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Foster, F. C., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 74 (1952), 2299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Brown, J. R. and O’Donnell, J. H., J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 23 (1979), 2763.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Dainton, F. S. and Ivin, K. J., Quart. Rev., 12 (1958), 61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Busfield, W. K., In: Aspects of Degradation and Stabilization of Polymers, ed. H. H. G. Jellinek, Amsterdam, Elsevier, 1978.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Dainton, F. S. and Ivin, K. J., Proc. Roy. Soc. (London), A212 (1952), 217.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ayscough, P. B., Ivin, K. J. and O’Donnell, J. H., Trans. Faraday Soc., 61 (1965), 1601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Cook, R. E., Ivin, K. J. and O’Donnell, J. H., Trans. Faraday Soc., 61 (1965), 1887.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    BRADY, B. H. G. and O’DONNELL, J. H., Trans. Faraday Soc., 64 (1968), 23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Brady, B. H. G. and O’Donnell, J. H., Trans. Faraday Soc., 64 (1968), 29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Snow, R. D. and Frey, F. E., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 65 (1943), 2417.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Dainton, F. S. and Ivin, K. J., Nature (London), 162 (1948), 705.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Cook, R. E., Dainton, F. S. and Ivin, K. J., J. Polym. Sci., 26 (1957), 351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Cook, R. E., Dainton, F. S. and Ivin, K. J., J. Polym. Sci., 29 (1958), 549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Bray, B. G., Diss. Abst., 19 (1958), 494.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Eaton, E. C. and Ivin, K. J., Polymer, 6 (1965), 339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Brown, J. R. and O’Donnell, J. H., Macromolecules, 3 (1970), 265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Brown, J. R. and O’Donnell, J. H., Macromolecules, 5 (1972), 109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    O’Donnell, J. H., Smith, C. A. and Winsor, D. J., J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Phys. Ed., 16 (1978), 1515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    O’Donnell, J. H., Rahman, N. P., Smith, C. A. and Winsor, D. J., Macromolecules, 12 (1979), 113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Nichol, J. M., O’Donnell, J. H., Rahman, N. P. and Winsor, D. J., J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Chem. Ed., 15 (1977), 2919.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    James, P. M., Ouano, A. C., Gipstein, E. and Gregges, A. R., J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 16 (1972), 2425.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Gray, D. N., Polym. Eng. Sci., 17 (1977), 719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Crawford, J. E. and Gray, D. N., J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 15 (1971), 1881.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    O’Donnell, J. H., PhD Thesis, University of Leeds, 1962.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Bowden, M. J. and Thompson, L. F., J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 17 (1973), 3211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Bowden, M. J., J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Chem. Ed., 12 (1974), 499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Bowmer, T. N. and O’Donnell, J. H., J. Macromol. Sci., Chem., A-17 (1982), 243.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Bowmer, T. N., O’Donnell, J. H. and Wells, P. R., Polym. Bull., 2 (1980), 103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Bowmer, T. N., O’Donnell, J. H. and Wells, P. R., Makromol. Chem., Rapid Commun., 1 (1980), 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Bowmer, T. N., O’Donnell, J. H., J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Chem. Ed., 19 (1981), 45.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Stillwagon, L. E., Doerries, E. M., Thompson, L. F. and Bowden, M. J., Coatings and Plastics Preprints, 37 (2) (1977), 38.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Cais, R. E. and O’Donnell, J. H., Makromol. Chem., 176 (1975), 3517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Doube, C. P., Honours Thesis, University of Queensland, 1970.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Cais, R. E. and O’Donnell, J. H., J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Lett. Ed., 14 (1976), 263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Johnson, R. N., Encyclopedia of Polymer Sci., 11 (1969), 447.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Hill, E. H. and Caldwell, J. R., J. Polym. Sci., A, 2 (1969), 1251.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Bowden, M. J., Thompson, L. F., Robinson, W. and Biolsi, M., Macromolecules, 15 (1982), 1417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Bowmer, T. N. and O’Donnell, J. H., Polymer, 22 (1981), 71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Thompson, L. F., Willson, C. G. and Bowden, M. J. (Eds), Introduction of Micro lithography, ACS Symposium Series No. 219, Washington DC, American Chemical Society, 1983.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Bowden, M. J. and Thompson, L. F., J. Electrochem. Soc., 120 (1973), 1722.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Bowden, M. J. and Thompson, L. F., J. Appl. Polym. Sci., Polym. Symp., 23 (1974), 99.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Bowden, M. J., Thompson, L. F. and Ballantyne, J. P., J. Vac. Sci. Technol., 12 (1975), 1294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Bowden, M. J., J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Symp., 49 (1975), 221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Ku, H. Y. and Scala, L. C., J. Electrochem. Soc., 116 (1969), 980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Inokuti, M., J. Chem. Phys., 38 (1963), 1174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Chu, W. H., Gipstein, E. and Ouano, A. C., J. App. Polym. Sci., 21 (1977), 1045.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Gipstein, E. and Hewett, W. A., US Patent 3 398 350, 1975.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Himics, R. J., Desai, N., Kaplan, M. and Poliniak, E. S., ACS Div. Org. Coatings and Plast. Chem. Preprints, 35 (2) (1975), 266.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Himics, R. J., Kaplan, M., Desai, N. and Poliniak, E. S., ACS Div. Org. Coatings and Plast. Chem. Preprints, 35 (2) (1975), 273.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Poliniak, E. S., Scheible, H. G. and Himics, R. J., US Patent 3 935 331, 1976.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Bowden, M. J. AND Thompson, L. F., J. Electrochem. Soc., 121 (1974), 1620.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Bowden, M. J. and Thompson, L. F., Proc. 6th. Intl. Conf. on Electron and Ion Beam Sci. and Technol., ed. R. Bakish, Princeton, New Jersey, Electrochem. Soc., 1974, p. 81.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Bowden, M. J. and Thompson, L. F., Polymer Eng. and Sci., 17 (1977), 269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Bowden, M. J. and Thompson, L. F., Polymer Eng. and Sci., 14 (1974), 525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Bowmer, T. N. and Bowden, M. J., Org. Coatings and App. Polym. Sci. Proc., 48 (1983), 161.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Bowden, M. J., Pease, R. F. W., Yau, L. D., Frackoviak, J., ThompsoN, L. F., Skinner, J. G. and Ballantyne, J. P., In: Microcircuit Engineering, eds H. Ahmed and W. C. Nixon, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1980, p. 239.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Himics, R. J., Desai, N. V. and Poliniak, E. S., US Patent 4045 318, 1977.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Yamazaki, T., Watakabe, Y., Suzuki, Y. and Nakata, H., J. Electrochem. Soc., 127 (1980), 1859.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Bowden, M. J., Thompson, L. F., Fahrenholtz, S. R. and Doerries, E. M., J. Electrochem. Soc., 128 (1981), 1304.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    BOWDEN, M. J. and THOMPSON, L. F., US Patent 4289 845, 1981.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Shiraishi, H., Isobe, A., Murai, F. and Nonogaki, S., Org. Coatings and Appl. Polym. Sci. Proc., 48 (1983), 178.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Cheng, Y. Y., Grant, B. D., Pederson, L. A. and Willson, C. G., US Patent 4 398001, 1983.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Thompson, L. F., Feit, E. D., Bowden, M. J., Lenzo, P. V. and Spencer, E. G., J. Electrochem. Soc., 121 (1974), 1500.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Taylor, G. N., Solid State Technol, 23 (1980), 73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Appelbaum, J., Bowden, M. J., Chandross, E. A., Feldman, M. and White, D. L., Proc. Kodak Microelectronic Seminar—Interface 1975, 19–21 October 1975, p. 40.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Srinivasan, R. and Mayne-Banton, V., Appl. Physics Lett., 41 (1982), 576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Geis, M. W., Randall, J. N., Deutsch, T. F., Efremow, N. N., Donnelly, J. P. and Woodhouse, D., J. Vac. Sci. Technoi. B, 1 (1983), 1178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Bowden, M. J. and Chandross, E. A., J. Electrochem. Soc., 122 (1975), 1370.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Himics, R. J. and Ross, D. L., In: Proc. Reg. Tech. Conf. Photopolymers: Principles, Processes and Materials, 13–15 October 1975, Ellenville, New York, Mid-Hudson Sect., SPE, 1976, p. 26.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Murrae J. Bowden
    • 1
  • James H. O’Donnell
    • 2
  1. 1.Bell Communications Research Inc.USA
  2. 2.Polymer and Radiation Group, Department of ChemistryUniversity of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia

Personalised recommendations