Advertisement

Glaciers, ice caps and ice sheets

  • Dorothy K. Hall
  • Jaroslav Martinec
Chapter
  • 110 Downloads

Abstract

A glacier is an accumulation of ice and snow existing in varying degrees of compaction that moves under its own weight in response to gravitational force. Precipitation in the form of snow adds mass to the system while mass is removed through various ablation processes including surface melting, sublimation and calving of icebergs. In response to these mass inputs and outputs, the motion of the glacier redistributes this mass in an attempt to reach an equilibrium state.

Keywords

Synthetic Aperture Radar Landsat Imagery Radar Altimeter Outlet Glacier Temperate Glacier 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Benson, C. S. (1962) Stratigraphic Studies in the Snow and Firn of the Greenland Ice Sheet, US Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, Hanover, NH, CRREL Research Report No. 70.Google Scholar
  2. Bindschadler, R. A. (1984) Jakobshavns Glacier Drainage Basin: A balance assessment. J. Geophys. Res., 89, 2066–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bjornsson, H. (1980) The surface area of glaciers in Iceland. J ökull, 28, 31.Google Scholar
  4. Brenner, A.C., Bindschadler, R.A., Thomas, R.H. and Zwally, H.J. (1983) Slope-induced errors in radar altimetry over continental ice sheets. J. Geophys. Res., 88, 1617–1623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brooks, R.L., Campbell, W.J. and Ramseier, R.O. et al., (1978) Ice sheet topography by satellite altimetry. Nature (London), 274, 539–543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brooks, R.L., Williams, R.S. Jr, Ferrigno, J.G. and Krabill, W.B. (1983) Amery ice shelf topography from satellite radar altimetry. In Antarctic Earth Science(eds R.L. Oliver, P.R. James and J.B. Jago), Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Antarctic Earth Sciences, 16–20 August 1984, University of Adelaide, South Australia, Australian Academy of Sciences, Canberra, pp. 441 – 445.Google Scholar
  7. Cassidy, W.A., Muenier, T., Buchwald, V. and Thompson, C., (1984) Search for meteorites in the Allan Hills/Elephant Moraine area, 1982–1983. Antarct. J. US, 18, 81–82.Google Scholar
  8. Chang, A.T.C., Gloersen, P. and Schmugge, T. et al.(1976) Microwave emission from snow and glacier ice. J. Glaciol., 16, 23–39.Google Scholar
  9. Clough, J.W. (1977) Radio-echo sounding: reflections from internal layers in ice sheets. J. Glaciol. 18, 3–14.Google Scholar
  10. Comiso, J.C., Zwally, H.J. and Saba, J.L. (1982) Radiative transfer modeling of microwave emission and dependence on firn properties. Ann. Glaciol., 3, 54–58.Google Scholar
  11. Crabtree, R.D. (1976) Changes in the Mýrdalsjökull ice cap, south Iceland: possible uses of satellite imagery. Polar Rec., 18, 73–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Donaldson, P.B. (1978) Melting of Antarctic icebergs. Nature (London), 275, 305–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dowdeswell, J.A., Drewry, D.J., Liestøl, O. and Orheim, O. (1984) Radio echo- sounding of Spitsbergen Glaciers: problems in the interpretation of layer and bottom returns. J. Glaciol., 30, 16–21.Google Scholar
  14. Drewry, D J. (1981) Radio echo sounding of ice masses: principles and applications. In Remote Sensing in Meteorology, Oceanography and Hydrology(ed. A.P. Cracknell ). Ellis Horwood Ltd, Chichester, pp. 270–284.Google Scholar
  15. Elachi, C. and Brown, W.E. Jr, (1975) Imaging and sounding of ice fields with airborne coherent radars. J. Geophys. Res., 80, 1113–1119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ferrigno, J. G. and Williams, R.S. Jr, (1983) Limitations in the use of Landsat images for mapping and other purposes in snow- and ice-covered regions: Antarctica, Iceland, and Cape Cod, Massachusetts, Proceedings of the Seventeenth International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 1, Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, pp. 335–355.Google Scholar
  17. Field, W. O. (ed.) (1975) Mountain Glaciers of the Northern Hemisphere, Vol. 2, US Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, CRREL, Hanover, NH, pp. 299–492.Google Scholar
  18. Flint, R.F. (1971) Glacial and Quaternary Geology. John Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  19. Goodman, R.H., Clarke, G.K.C. and Jarvis, G.T. et al.(1975) Radio soundings on Trapridge Glacier, Yukon Territory, Canada. J. Glaciol., 14, 79–84.Google Scholar
  20. Gudmandsen, P. (1975) Layer echoes in polar ice sheets. J. Glaciol., 15, 95–101.Google Scholar
  21. Gudmandsen, P. (1977) Studies of ice by means of radio echo sounding. In Remote Sensing of the Terrestrial Environment(eds R.F. Peel, L.F. Curtis and E.C. Barrett ), Butterworths, London, pp. 198–211.Google Scholar
  22. Hall, D.K. and Ormsby, J.P. (1983) Use of SEASAT synthetic aperture radar and LANDSAT multispectral scanner subsystem data for Alaskan glaciology studies. J. Geophys. Res., 88, 1597–1607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Holden, C. (1977) Experts ponder icebergs as relief for world water dilemma. Science, 198, 274–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hult, J.L. and Ostrander, N.C. (1974) Applicability of ERTS to Antarctic Iceberg Resources, Third Earth Resources Technology Satellite-1 Symposium, Vol. 1, Technical presentations, Section B, NASA SP-351, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC, pp. 1467–1490.Google Scholar
  25. Jankowski, E.J. and Drewry, D.J. (1981) The structure of West Antarctica from geophysical studies. Nature (London), 291, 17–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Jezek, K.C. and Bentley, C.R. (1983) Field studies of bottom crevasses in the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica. J. Glaciol., 29, 118–126.Google Scholar
  27. Kirby, M.E. and Lowry, R.T. (1981) Iceberg detectability problems using SAR and SLAR systems. In Satellite Hydrology(eds M. Deutsch, D.R. Wiesnet and A. Rango), Proceedings of the Fifth Annual William T. Pecora Memorial Symposium on Remote Sensing, 10–15 June 1979, American Water Resources Association, Minneapolis, MN, pp. 200–212.Google Scholar
  28. Krimmel, R.M. and Meier, M.F. (1975) Glacier applications of ERTS images. J. Glaciol., 15, 391–402.Google Scholar
  29. Krimmel, R.M., Post, A. and Meier, M.F. (1976) Surging and nonsurging glaciers in the Pamir Mountains, USSR. In ERTS-1, A New Window on our Planet(eds R.S. Williams, Jr and W.D. Carter), US Geological Survey Professional Paper 929, pp. 178–184.Google Scholar
  30. Larson, R.W., Shuchman, R.A. Rawson, R.A. and Worsfold, R.D. (1978) The use of SAR systems for iceberg detection and characterization, Proceedings of the Twelfth International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 2, Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, pp. 1127–1147.Google Scholar
  31. Macheret, Yu. Ya. and Zhuravlev, A.B. (1982) Radio echo-sounding of Svalbard glaciers. J. Glaciol., 28, 295–314.Google Scholar
  32. Martin, T.V., Zwally, H. J., Brenner, A.C. and Bindschadler, R.A. (1983) Analysis and retracking of continental ice sheet radar altimeter waveforms. J. Geophys. Res., 88, 1608–1616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mayo, L.R. (1978) Identification of unstable glaciers intermediate between normal and surging glaciers, Proceedings of the International Workshop on Mechanism of Glacier Variations, Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Section of Glaciology of the Soviet Geophysical Committee and Institute of Geography, Moscow, pp. 133–135.Google Scholar
  34. Meier, M.F. (1973) Evaluation of ERTS imagery for mapping and detection of changes in snowcover on land and on glaciers, Symposium on Significant Results Obtained from the Earth Resources Technology Satellite-1, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington DC, Vol. 1, pp. 863–875.Google Scholar
  35. Meier, M.F. (1976) Monitoring the motion of surging glaciers in the Mount McKinley Massif, Alaska. In ERTS-1, A New Window on our Planet(eds R.S. Williams, Jr and W.D. Carter), US Geological Survey Professional Paper 929, pp. 185–187.Google Scholar
  36. Meier, M.F., Rasmussen, L.A., Post, A. et al. (1980) Predicted Timing of the Disintegration of the Lower Reach of Columbia Glacier, Alaska, US Geological Survey Open File Report 80–582.Google Scholar
  37. Morgan, V.I. and Budd, W.F. (1975) Radio-echo sounding of the Lambert Glacier basin. J. Glaciol., 15, 103–111.Google Scholar
  38. Narod, B.B. and Clarke, G.K.C. (1980) Airborne UHF radio echo sounding of three Yukon Glaciers. J. Glaciol., 25, 23–31.Google Scholar
  39. Østrem, G. (1975) ERTS data in glaciology - an effort to monitor glacier mass balance from satellite imagery. J. Glaciol., 15, 403–415.Google Scholar
  40. Oswald, G.K.A. (1975) Investigation of sub-ice bedrock characteristics by radio-echo sounding. J. Glaciol., 15, 75–87.Google Scholar
  41. Paren, J.G. and Robin, G. de Q. (1975) Internal reflections in polar ice sheets. J. Glaciol., 14, 251–259.Google Scholar
  42. Paterson, W.S.B. (1981) The Physics of Glaciers, 2nd edn, Pergamon Press, New York.Google Scholar
  43. Post, A. (1960) The exceptional advances of the Muldrow, Black Rapids, and Susitna Glaciers. J. Geophys. Res., 65, 3703–3712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Post, A., Meier, M.F. and Mayo, L.R. (1976) Measuring the motion of the Lowell and Tweedsmuir surging glaciers of British Columbia, Canada. In ERTS-1, A New Window on Our Planet(eds R.S. Williams, Jr and W.D. Carter), US Geological Survey Professional Paper 929, pp. 180–184.Google Scholar
  45. Robin, G. de Q. (1975) Radio-echo sounding: glaciological interpretations and applications. J. Glaciol., 15, 49–64.Google Scholar
  46. Sikonia, W.G. and Post, A. (1979) Columbia Glacier, Alaska - Recent Ice Loss and its Relationship to Seasonal Terminal Embayments, Thinning and Glacier Flow, US Geological Survey Open File Report 79–1265.Google Scholar
  47. Sugden, D.E. and John, B.S. (1976) Glaciers and Landscape, John Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  48. Swithinbank, C., Doake, C., Wager, A. and Crabtree, R. (1976) Major changes in the map of Antarctica. Polar Rec., 18, 295–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Thorarinsson, S., Saemundsson, K. and Williams, R.S. Jr (1973) ERTS-1 Image of Vatnajökull: Analysis of glaciological, structural, and volcanic features. J ökull, 23, 7–17.Google Scholar
  50. Tomasson, H. (1975) Grímsvatnahlaup 1972, mechanism and sediment discharge. J ökull, 24, 27–39.Google Scholar
  51. Williams, R.S., Jr (1976) Vatnajökull Icecap, Iceland. In ERTS-1, A New Window on our Planet(eds R.S. Williams, Jr and W.D. Carter), US Geological Survey Professional Paper 929, pp. 188–193.Google Scholar
  52. Williams, R.S., Jr (1983a) Satellite Glaciology of Iceland. J ökull, 33, 3–12.Google Scholar
  53. Williams, R.S., Jr (ed.) (1983b) Geological applications. Manual of Remote Sensing, 2nd edn, American Society of Photogrammetry, Falls Church, VA, Ch. 31, pp. 1667–1953.Google Scholar
  54. Williams, R.S., Jr, Bodvarsson, A. and Fridrksson, S. et al.(1974) Environmental studies of Iceland with ERTS-1 imagery, Proceedings of the Ninth Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 1, Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, pp. 31–81.Google Scholar
  55. Williams, R.S., Jr and Ferrigno, J. G. (1981) Satellite image atlas of the Earth’s glaciers. In Satellite Hydrology(eds M. Deutch, D.R. Wiesnet and A. Rango), Proceedings of the Fifth Annual William T. Pecora Memorial Symposium on Remote Sensing, 10–15 June, 1979, American Water Resources Association, MN, pp. 173–182.Google Scholar
  56. Williams, R.S., Jr, Ferrigno, J.G. and Kent, T.M. (1984a) Index Map Table showing Optimum Landsat 1, 2 and 3 Images of Antarctica, US Geological Survey Open-File Report 84–573.Google Scholar
  57. Williams, R.S., Jr, Ferrigno, J.G. and Meunier, T.K. (1984b) Satellite glaciology project. Antarct. J. US, 18, 119–121.Google Scholar
  58. Williams, R.S., Jr, Meunier, T.K. and Ferrigno, J.G. (1983) Blue ice, meteorites and satellite imagery in Antarctica. Polar Rec., 21, 493–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Williams, R.S., Jr, Thorarinsson, S., Bjornsson, H. et al.(1979). Dynamics of Icelandic ice caps and glaciers. J. Glaciol., 24, 505 – 507.Google Scholar
  60. Zwally, H.J. (1977) Microwave emissivity and accumulation rate of polar firn. J. Glaciol., 18, 195–215.Google Scholar
  61. Zwally, H.J., Bindschadler, R.A. and Brenner, A.C. et al.(1983) Surface elevation contours of Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. J. Geophys. Res., 88, 1589–1596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Zwally, H.J. and P. Gloersen (1977) Passive microwave images of the polar regions and research applications. Polar Rec., 18, 431–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman and Hall Ltd. and J. Martinec 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dorothy K. Hall
  • Jaroslav Martinec

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations