Advertisement

Comparison of Photoacoustic and Chlorophyll Fluorescence Signatures of Green Leaves

  • Eckehard M. Nagel
  • Hartmut K. Lichtenthaler

Abstract

The photoacoustic (PA) signals of tobacco and beech leaves are compared with measurements of the chlorophyll fluorescence, the CO2-assimilation and the pigment content of the leaves to show that the PA-method is a valuable tool to obtain additional information about the photosynthetic apparatus. The PA-signals are shown as excitation spectra in the visible range and as induction kinetics excited by a He/Ne-laser.

The PA-signals are determined by the light-induced heat but are superimposed on the photosynthetically produced oxygen pulses at low chopping frequencies (150 Hz).

During the autumnal chlorophyll breakdown the PA-signal declines in the red-light part of the spectrum due to the loss of chlorophyll. In the blue-light part the PA-signal remains at a constant height, indicating that the light-energy absorbed by the carotenoids can no longer be used in photosynthesis and is dissipated as heat.

During the light-induced induction kinetics of the green leaves the heat signal (PA-signal at 238 Hz) and the chlorophyll-fluorescence signal decrease after a yery fast initial increase, whereas the PA-signal at 22 Hz increases furthermore after the fast increase at the onset of illumination. The PA-signals at 22 and 238 Hz and the net CO2-assimilation reach the steady state after 20 min, whereas the chlorophyll fluorescence is much faster and already reaches the steady state after 4 min. The increase of the CO2-assimilation seems to be related more closely to the decrease of the heat signal than to the decrease of the fluorescence signal.

If continuous saturating white light is added to the chopped excitation laser light (238 Hz) at the steady state of the kinetic, the heat signal increases and remains at a constant height during the illumination, whereas the fluorescence signal increases and then declines. This may indicate that the heat signal arises from both photosystems, whereas the chlorophyll-fluorescence emission at room temperature primarily emanates from photosystem II. The height of the increase of the PA-signal reflects the photosynthetic activity of the leaves.

Key Words

aurea mutant chlorophyll fluorescence CO2-assimilation PN heat fluorescence induction kinetics photoacoustic signais photosynthesis sun and shade leaves 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bell AG, 1880. Upon the production and reproduction of sound by light. Journal of the Society of Telegraph Engineers 9: 404–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bults G, Horwitz, BA, Malkin, S and Cahen D, 1982. Photoacoustic measurements of photosynthetic activities in whole leaves. Photochemistry and gas exchange. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 679: 452–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Buschmann C and Prehn H, 1981. In vivo studies of radiative and non-radiative de-excitation process of pigments in Raphanus seedlings by photo-acoustic spectroscxopy. Photobiochem. Photobiophys. 2: 209–215.Google Scholar
  4. Buschmann C, Prehn H and Lichtenthaler H, 1984. Photoacoustic spectroscopy PAS and its application in photosynthesis research. Photosynth. Res. 5: 29–46.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Butler WL, 1977. Chlorophyll fluorescence: a probe for electron transfer and energy transfer. In: Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology. New Series, Vol. 5, pp. 149–167, Pirson A and Zimmermann MH eds., Springer Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  6. Cahen D, Malkin S and Lerner EI, 1978. Photoacoustic spectroscopy of chloroplast membranes; listening to photosynthesis. FEBS Letters 91: 339–342.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Canaani O, Motzan Z and Malkin S, 1985. Comparison of photosynthetic parameters of an aurea mutant Su/su of tobacco and the wild-type by the photoacoustic method. Planta 164: 480–486.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Duysens LNM and Sweers HE, 1963. Mechanism of two photochemical reactions in algae as studied by means of fluorescence. In: Microalgae and Photosynthetic Bacteria, pp. 353–372, Ashida. Jap. Soc. Plant Physiol., Univ. of Tokyo Press, Tokyo.Google Scholar
  9. Karukstis KK and Sauer K, 1983. Fluorescence decay kinetics of chlorophyll in photosynthetic membranes. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 23: 131–158.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Krause GH and Weis E, 1984. Chlorophyll fluorescence as a tool in plant physiology. II. Interpretation of fluorescence signals. Photosynth. Res. 5: 138–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Lichtenthaler HK, 1987. Chlorophylls and carotenoids: pigments of photosynthetic biomembranes. Methods Enzymol. 148: 350–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Lichtenthaler HK, Buschmann C, Rinderle U and Schmuck G, 1986. Application of chlorophyll fluorescence in ecophysiology. Radiat. Environ. Biophys. 25: 297–308.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Malkin S and Cahen D, 1978. Photoacoustic spectroscopy and radiant energy conversion: theory of the effect with special emphasis on photosynthesis. Photochem. Photobiol. 29: 803–813.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Malkin S, Lasser-Ross N, Bults G and Cahen D, 1981. Photoacoustic spectroscopy in photosynthesis. In: Proc. of the Fifth International Photosynthesis Congress, Photosynthesis III. Structure and Molecular organisation of the Photosynthetic Apparatus, pp. 1031–1042, Akoyunoglou G ed., Balaban International Science Services, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  15. Nagel EM, 1988. Photoakustische Untersuchungen an Pflanzen. Dissertation am Botanischen Institut (Lehrstuhl für Pflanzenphysiologie und Pflanzenbiochemie) der Universität Karlsruhe.Google Scholar
  16. Nagel EM and Lichtenthaler HK, 1988. Photoacoustic spectra of green leaves and of white leaves treated with the bleaching herbicide. In: Proc. of the 5th Internat. Top. Meeting on Photoacoustic and Photothermal Phenomena, pp. 568–569, Hess P and Pelzl J eds., Springer Series in Optical Sciences, Springer Berlin, Heidelberg.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Nagel EM, Buschmann C and Lichtenthaler HK, 1987. Photoacoustic spectra of needles as an indicator of the activity of the photosynthetic apparatus of healthy and damaged conifers. Physiol. Plantarum 70: 427–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Pandey GC, 1983. Photoacoustic spectroscopy in the study of metal toxicity. In: 3rd International Conference on Photoacoustic and Photothermic Spectroscopy, 5.12/pp. 1–3, Paris.Google Scholar
  19. Poulet V, Cahen D and Malkin S, 1983. Photoacoustic detection of photosynthetic oxygen evolution from leaves. Quantitative analysis by phase and amplitude measurements. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 724: 433–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Rosencwaig A and Gersho A, 1976. Theory of the photoacoustic effect with solids. Applied Physics 47: 64–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Schnabl H, Weissenböck G and Scharf H, 1986. In vivo-microspectrophotometric characterization of flavonol glycosides in Vicia faba guard and epidermal cells. Experimental Botany 37: 61–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Weissenböck G, Schnabl H, Scharf H and Sachs G, 1987. On the properties of fluorescing compounds in guard and epidermal cells of Allium cepa L. Planta 171: 88–95.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eckehard M. Nagel
    • 1
  • Hartmut K. Lichtenthaler
    • 1
  1. 1.Botanisches Institut II (Plant Physiology and Plant Biochemistry)University of KarlsruheKarlsruheGermany

Personalised recommendations