Education, Employability, Employment, and Entrepreneurship: Meeting the Challenge of the 4Es

  • Manish Sabharwal
Part of the Technical and Vocational Education and Training: Issues, Concerns and Prospects book series (TVET, volume 19)


This chapter makes the case that the primary causes of poverty lie in the education, employment and employability (3E) ecosystem because sustainable poverty reduction comes from access. And access comes from a radical reform of the 3Es that not only delivers outcomes but creates the enabling environment for the fourth E of entrepreneurship. India, like many other Asian countries, is going through five labour market transitions: farm to nonfarm, rural to urban, unorganised to organised, subsistence self-employment to decent wage employment and school to work. These are journeys to a better life for most Indians, but they are being sabotaged by three problems: matching (employment reform), mismatch (employability reform) and pipeline (education reform). These problems require creating a fertile habitat for public-private partnerships or direct private participation in the provision of the 3Es because many regulations or dogmas currently sabotage this participation.


Vocational Training Employability Skill Informal Employment Employment Exchange Demographic Dividend 
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Copyright information

© Asian Development Bank. The book is published with open access at 2013

Open Access This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial License which permits any non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.

Authors and Affiliations

  • Manish Sabharwal
    • 1
  1. 1.TeamLease Services Pvt LtdBangaloreIndia

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