Pollutant Dispersion in an Urban Area

  • Keisuke NakaoEmail author
  • Shinsuke Kato
Part of the Springer Geography book series (SPRINGERGEOGR)


This chapter is composed by an introduction of existing prediction methodology of pollutant transportation and experimental observations of concentration fluctuation. In Sect. 5.2, the convective diffusion equation is derived from a balance of mass transportation, and approximated expression of average concentration theoretically derived from the transport equation is introduced. In Sect. 5.3, the results of wind tunnel experiment on downscaled model of existent urban area are indicated. The several characteristic points in urban area, such as highway, school ground, and in-between space of high-rise buildings, are selected as an occurrence point of pollutant. Instantaneous concentration is measured in-between of office buildings. The time of transport between source and measuring point is measured. The property of instantaneous concentration is discussed by focusing the probability density function (PDF) and the higher order moments, skewness, and kurtosis. These properties are linked to the distance between source and measuring point and condition of buildup area.


Urban air pollution Unsteady emission Higher order moment Probability density function Gaussian plume model 



The present research in Sect. 5.3 is financially supported by the sponsorship of MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology) of Japan from 2007 to 2009 and is conducted in corporation with Mitsubishi Heavy Industries.


  1. Briggs GA (1973) Diffusion estimates for small emissions. ATDL Contribution No.79 Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TennGoogle Scholar
  2. Bu Z, Kato S, Ishida Y, Huang H (2009) New criteria for assessing local wind environment at pedestrian level based on exceedance probability analysis. Build Environ 44(7):1501–1508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Csanady GT (1973) Turbulent diffusion in the environment. Reidel Publishing Company, DordrechtCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Hanna SR (1984) The exponential probability density function and concentration fluctuations in smoke plumes. Bound Layer Meteorol 29:361–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Panofsky HA, Dutton JA (1984) Atmospheric turbulence-models and methods for engineering applications. Wiley-Interscience, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. Pasquill FA (1974) Atmospheric diffusion, 2nd edn. Halstead Press-Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  7. Sutton OG (1932) A theory of eddy diffusion in the atmosphere. Proc R Soc Lond A 135:143–165. doi:10.1098/rspa.1932.0025CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Sutton OG (1953) Micrometeorology. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of EngineeringThe University of TokyoTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Institute of Industrial ScienceThe University of TokyoTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations