Advertisement

Social Vulnerability Assessment through GIS Techniques: A Case Study of Flood Risk Mapping in Mexico

  • P. Krishna Krishnamurthy
  • L. Krishnamurthy

Abstract

The most significant impact of natural disasters is at the local level, where human settlements are destroyed and livelihoods are put at risk, economic losses are ensued, and there may be injuries or loss of life in the affected areas (Smith, 2004; Tran et al., 2009). Disaster potential can be conceptualised as the simultaneous occurrence of hazard (the geophysical environmental risk) and vulnerability (the social risk) (cf. Alexander, 1998). Within the context of climate change, in particular, hydrometeorological hazards are becoming more complex and the potential for greater adverse impacts increases (Pielke, 2005; IPCC WGI, 2007). One-in-one-hundred-years flooding events such as that of 2007 in the Gulf of Mexico are expected to become more frequent (SEMARNAT and INE, 2010). The number of recorded floods in Mexico has increased four-fold in the past fifty years and the associated economic losses have increased exponentially in the same period (EM-DAT, 2011). The policy challenge is complicated as coastal societies continue to settle in hazard-prone areas with as many as 600 million globally (and 50 million in the Gulf of Mexico) living in floodplains by 2100 (Nicholls and Mimura, 1998), and a replicable methodology for the analysis of social vulnerability is needed.

Keywords

Geographic Information System Flood Risk Disaster Risk Vulnerability Index Social Vulnerability 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adger, W.N. (1999). Social Vulnerability to Climate Change and Extremes in Coastal Vietnam. World Development, 27(2), 249-269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alexander, D. (1998). Natural Disasters. University College London Press, London, United Kingdom.Google Scholar
  3. Boardman, J., Evans, R. and Ford, J. (2003). Muddy floods on the South Downs, Southern England: Problems and responses. Environmental Science and Policy, 6, 69-83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Centro Nacional de Prevención de Desastres [CENAPRED] (2009). Dirección de capacitación. Retrieved December 10, 2010, from http://www.cenapred.unam.mx/ es/Capacitacion/
  5. Clark, G.E., Moser, S.C., Ratick, S.J., Dow, K., Meyer, W.B., Emani, S., Jin, W., Kasperson, J.X. and Schwars, H.E. (1998). Assessing the vulnerability of coastal communities to extreme storms: the case of Revere, MA, USA. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 3(1), 59-82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Coch, N.K. (1995). Geohazards: Natural and Human. Prentice Hall, New Jersey, United States.Google Scholar
  7. Cutter, S.L., Boruff, B.J. and Shirley, W.L. (2003). Social vulnerability to environmental hazards. Social Science Quarterly, 82, 242-260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Daniel, E.B. and Abkowitz, M.D. (2005). Predicting storm-induced beach erosion in Caribbean Small Islands. Coastal Management, 33, 53-69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dash, N. (1997). The use of geographic information system in disaster research. International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 15(1), 135-146.Google Scholar
  10. Ebert, A., Kerle, N. and Stein, A. (2009). Urban social vulnerability assessment with physical proxies and spatial metrics derived from air- and space-borne imagery and GIS data. Natural Hazards, 48, 275-294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Emergency Events Databases [EM-DAT] (2011). Retrieved January 2, 2011, from http://www.emdat.be/Database/CountryProfile/countryprofile2.php
  12. Gobierno de Veracruz (2010). Cuarto Informe de Gobierno. Gobierno de Veracruz, Xalapa, Mexico.Google Scholar
  13. Hahn, M.B., Riederer, A.M. and Foster, S.O. (2009). The Livelihood Vulnerability Index: A pragmatic approach to assessing risks from climate variability and change— A case study in Mozambique. Global Environmental Change, 19(1), 74-88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hart, D.E. and Knight, G.A. (2009). 'Geographic Information System assessment of tsunami vulnerability on a dune coast'. Journal of Coastal Research, 25(1), 131141.Google Scholar
  15. Hatfield Consultants (2006). Using Participatory Methodologies, Geographic Information Systems and Earth Observation Data to Map Traditional Ecological Knowledge in Hong Ha Commune, Thua Thien Hue, Viet Nam. EOSTEM Project Milestone 9 Report. Hatfield Consultants, West Vancouver, Canada.Google Scholar
  16. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Working Group I [IPCC WGI] (2007). Climate Change 2007 - The Physical Science Basis: Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom.Google Scholar
  17. National Institute for Geographic Studies and Informatics [INEGI] (2010). Retrieved January 3, 2011, from http://www.inegi.org.mx/
  18. Jones, D.K.C. (1991). Environmental Hazards. In: Bennett, R. and Estall, R. (Eds) Global Change and Challenge (pp. 27-56). Routledge, London.Google Scholar
  19. Krishnamurthy, P.K., Fisher, J.B. and Johnson, C. (2011). Mainstreaming local perceptions of hurricane risk into policymaking. Global Environmental Change, 21(1), 143-153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Krishnamurthy, P.K. and Krishnamurthy, L. (2011). Agrobiodiversity for livelihood security: A case study of agroforestry technologies in Mexico. Journal of Life Sciences, 5(2), 108-119.Google Scholar
  21. Morrow, B.H. (1999). Identifying and mapping community vulnerability. Disasters, 21(1), 1-18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Nagarajan, R., Mukherjee, A., Roy, A. and Khire, M.V. (1998). Technical note: Temporal remote sensing data and GIS application in landslide hazard zonation of part of Western Ghat, India. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 19(4), 573-585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Nicholls, R.J. and Mimura, N. (1998). Regional issues raised by sea-level rise and their policy implications. Climate Research, 11(1), 5-18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Pareschi, M.T., Cavarra, L., Favalli, M., Giannini, F. and Meriggi, A. (2000). GIS and volcanic risk assessment. Natural Hazards, 21(2-3), 361-379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Peters-Guarín, G., van Westen, C.J. and Monotya, L. (2005). Community-Based Flood Risk Assessment Using GIS for the Town of San Sebastián, Guatemala. Journal of Human Security and Development, 1(1), 29-49.Google Scholar
  26. Pielke, Jr., R.A. (2005). Are there trends in hurricane destruction? Nature, 438, E11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Pradan, A. (2004, July 26-28). GIS and remote sensing for flood disaster identification: A case study of Koshi River basin in Nepal. Paper presented at the Global Symposium for Hazard Risk Reduction: Lessons Learned from the Applied Research Grants for Disaster Risk Reduction Program, Washington, DC, United States.Google Scholar
  28. Rashed, T. and Weeks, J. (2003a). Assessing vulnerability to earthquake hazards through spatial multicriteria analysis of urban areas. International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 17(6), 547-576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Rashed, T. and Weeks, J. (2003b). Exploring the spatial association between measures from satellite imagery and patterns of urban vulnerability to earthquake hazards. The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences XXXIV, 7(W9), 144-152.Google Scholar
  30. Secretaría de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales y el Instituto Nacional de Ecología [SEMARNAT and INE] (2008). Mexico's Third National Communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. SEMARNAT, Mexico City, Mexico.Google Scholar
  31. Sistema Nacional de Protección Civil [SNPC] (2009). Normatividad de Protección Civil: Ley de Protección Civil para el Estado Libre y Soberano de Veracruz-Llave. SNPC, Mexico City, Mexico.Google Scholar
  32. Smith, K. (2004). Environmental Hazards: Assessing Risk and Reducing Disaster. Routledge, London, United Kingdom.Google Scholar
  33. Tran, P., Shaw, R., Chantry, G. and Norton, J. (2009). GIS and local knowledge in disaster management: A case study of flood risk mapping in Viet Nam. Disasters, 33(1), 152-169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Twigg, J. (2001). Sustainable livelihoods and vulnerability to disasters. Working Paper 2. Benfield, London.Google Scholar
  35. Wisner, B., Blaikie, P., Cannon, T. and Davis, I. (2004). At Risk: Natural hazards, people's vulnerability and disasters. Routledge, London, United Kingdom.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Capital Publishing Company 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Krishna Krishnamurthy
    • 1
  • L. Krishnamurthy
    • 1
  1. 1.Agroforestry Centre for Sustainable DevelopmentUniversity of ChapingoChapingoMexico

Personalised recommendations