Salivary Protease Inhibitors with Non Anti-Hemostatic Functions
Arthropod saliva regulates proteolysis in the sites of bite(s). Secreted salivary inhibitors target different proteolytic enzymes (proteases) that have a pivotal role in vertebrate hemostasis, immunity and inflammation. The aim of this chapter is to give an overview of the salivary protease inhibitors that affect the latter two physiological procedures. Functional studies, mainly in ticks, have demonstrated many potent arthropod salivary inhibitors of cysteine proteases (cathepsins) and serine proteases (elastase and tryptase). Emphasis is given to the function of these inhibitors and more specifically to the mechanism by which they facilitate hematophagy.
KeywordsMast Cell Salivary Gland Tick Infestation Hard Tick Bovine Pancreatic Trypsin Inhibitor
This work was supported by the Intramural Research Program of the Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, by the grant No. IAA600960811 from the Grant Agency of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic and by the Research Center No. LC06009 from the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic. We thank Professor R. Manjunatha Kini for the fruitful discussions and comments on the manuscript, Dr. Koh Cho Yeow for preparing the figure and NIAID intramural editor Brenda Rae Marshall for assistance.
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