Advertisement

Failure Modes of Composite Sandwich Beams

  • Isaac M. DanielEmail author
  • Emmanuel E. Gdoutos

Abstract

The overall performance of sandwich structures depends in general on the properties of the facesheets, the core, the adhesive bonding the core to the skins, as well as geometrical dimensions. Sandwich beams under general bending, shear and in-plane loading display various failure modes. Their initiation, propagation and interaction depend on the constituent material properties, geometry, and type of loading. Failure modes and their initiation can be predicted by conducting a thorough stress analysis and applying appropriate failure criteria in the critical regions of the beam. This analysis is difficult because of the nonlinear and inelastic behavior of the constituent materials and the complex interactions of failure modes. Possible failure modes include tensile or compressive failure of the facesheets, debonding at the core/facesheet interface, indentation failure under localized loading, core failure, wrinkling of the compression facesheet, and global buckling.

In the present work failure modes of sandwich beams were studied. Facesheet materials were typically unidirectional and carbon fabric/epoxy and glass fab-ric/vinylester. Core materials discussed include four types of a closed-cell PVC foam (Divinycell H80, H100, H160 and H250, with densities of 80, 100, 160 and 250 kg/m3, respectively) and balsa wood. The facesheet and core materials were fully characterized mechanically. The various failure modes were studied separately and both initiation and ultimate failure were determined. Following initiation of a particular failure mode, this mode may trigger and interact with other modes and final failure may follow a different failure path. The transition from one failure mode to another for varying loading or state of stress and beam dimensions was discussed. Experimental results were compared with analytical predictions.

Keywords

Failure Mode Interfacial Crack Core Material Sandwich Plate Sandwich Panel 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgment

The work discussed in this chapter was sponsored by the Office of Naval Research (ONR). The authors are grateful to Dr. Y.D.S. Rajapakse of ONR for his support, encouragement and cooperation.

References

  1. 1.
    Vinson JR (2001) Sandwich structures. App Mech Rev 54(3):201–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zenkert D (1995) An introduction to sandwich construction. London:Engineering Materials Advisory Services.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Daniel IM, Abot JL (2000) Fabrication, testing and analysis of composite sandwich beams. Comp Sci Tech 60(12–13):2455–2463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Daniel IM, Gdoutos EE, Abot JL, Wang KA (2001) Effect of loading conditions on deformation and failure of composite sandwich beams. ASME, IMECE 2001/AMD-25412.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Daniel IM, Gdoutos EE, Abot JL, Wang KA (2001) Core failure modes in composite sandwich beams. ASME, 2001, IMECE, AD-Vol. 65/AMD-Vol. 249:293–303.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gdoutos EE, Daniel IM, Wang KA, Abot JL (2001) Nonlinear behavior of composite sandwich beams under three-point bending. Exp Mech 41(2):182–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Daniel IM, Gdoutos EE, Wang KA (2002) Failure of composite sandwich beams. Adv Comp Lett 11(2):49–57.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Daniel IM, Gdoutos EE, Wang KA, Abot JL (2002) Failure modes of composite sandwich beams. Int J Dam Mech 11:309–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gdoutos EE, Daniel IM, Wang KA (2002) Indentation failure in composite sandwich structures. Exp Mech (42):426–431.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Abot JL, Daniel IM, Gdoutos EE (2002) Contact law for composite sandwich beams. J Sand Struct Mater (4):157–173.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gdoutos EE, Daniel IM, Wang KA, Abot JL (2003) Compression facing wrinkling of composite sandwich structures. Mech Mater (35):511–522.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Daniel IM, Gdoutos EE, Abot JL, Wang KA (2003) Deformation and failure of composite sandwich structures. J Thermopl Comp Mater (16):345–364.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Abot JL, Daniel IM, Schubel PM (2003) Damage progression in glass/vinylester balsa wood sandwich beams. Sixth Int Conf Sand Struct (ICSS6) Ft. Lauderdale, FL.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Daniel IM (2008) The influence of core properties on failure of composite sandwich beams. Proc Eighth Int Conf Sand Struct (ICSS8), Porto, Portugal.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Daniel IM (2009) Impact response and damage tolerance of composite sandwich structures. In Dynamic Failure of Materials and Structures, Shukla A, Ravichandran G, and Rajapakse YDS (eds), Springer.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Abot, JL (2000) Fabrication, testing and analysis of composite sandwich beams. Ph.D. Thesis, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gibson, LJ, Ashby MF (1999) Cellular solids, structure and properties. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gdoutos EE, Daniel IM, Wang KA (2002) Failure of cellular foams under multiaxial loading. Comp Part A 33:163–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tsai SW, Wu EM (1971) A general theory of strength for anisotropic materials. J Comp Mat 5:58–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Prasad S, Carlsson LA (1994) Debonding and crack kinking in foam core sandwich beams. 1. Analysis of fracture specimens. Eng Fract Mech 47(6):813–824.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Prasad S, Carlsson LA (1994) Debonding and crack kinking in foam core sandwich beams. 2. Experimental investigation. Eng Fract Mech 47(6):825.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Grau DL, Qiu XS, Sankar BV (2006) Relation between interfacial fracture toughness and mode-mixity in honeycomb core sandwich composites. J Sand Struct Mat 8(3):187–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Minakuchi S, Okabe Y, Takeda, N (2007) Real-time detection of debonding between honeycomb coreand facesheet using small diameter FBG sensorembedded in adhesive layer. J Sand Struct Mat 9(1):9–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Berggreen C, Simonsen BC, Borum KK (2007) Experimental and numerical study of interface crack propagation in foam-cored sandwich beams. J Comp Mat 41(4):493–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Jakobsen J, Bozhevolnaya E, and Thomsen OT (2007) New peel stopper concept for sandwich structures. Comp Sci Tech 67:3378–3385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Aviles F, Carlsson LA (2008) Analysis of the sandwich DCB specimen for debond characterization. Eng Fract Mech 75(2):153–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Østergaard RC, Sørensen BF, Brϸndsted P (2007) Measurement of interface fracture toughness of sandwich structures under mixed mode loadings. J Sand Struct Mat 9:445–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Berggreen C, Simonsen BC, Borum KK (2007) Experimental and numerical study of interface crack propagation in foam-cored sandwich beams. J Comp Mats 41:493–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Gdoutos EE, Balopoulos V (2008) Kinking of interfacial cracks in sandwich beams. Proc Eighth Int Conf Sand Struct (ICSS8), Porto, Portugal.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Alen HG (1969) Analysis and design of structural sandwich panels. Permanon, London.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hall DJ, Robson BL (1984) A review of the design and materials programme for the GRP/foam sandwich composite hull of the RAN minehunter. Comp 15:266–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Zenkert D, Vikström M (1992) Shear cracks in foam core sandwich panels:nondestructive testing and damage assessment. J Comp Tech Res 14:95–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Zenkert D (1995) An introduction to sandwich construction. Chameleon, London.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Daniel IM, Gdoutos EE, Abot JL, Wang K-A (2001) Core failure modes in composite sandwich beams. Contemporary Research in Engineering Mechanics, Kardomateas GA, Birman V (eds) AD-65, AMD-249:293–303.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Sha JB, Yip TH, Sun J (2006) Responses of damage and energy of sandwich and multilayer beams composed of metallic face sheets and aluminum foam core under bending loading. Metal Mats Trans A 37:2419–2433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bezazi A, El Mahi A, Berthelot J-M, Bezzazi, B (2007) Experimental analysis of behavior and damage of sandwich composite materials in three point bending. Part I Static tests and stiffness degradation at failure studies. Strength Mat 37:170–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Gdoutos EE, Daniel IM, Wang KA (2001) Multiaxial characterization and modelling of a PVC cellular foam. J Therm Comp Mat 14:365–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Meyer-Piening HR (1989) Remarks on higher order sandwich stress and deflection analysis. Proc First Int Conf Sand Constr:107–127.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Soden PD (1996) Indentation of composite sandwich beams. J Strain Anal 31:353–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Shuaeib FM, Soden PD (1997) Indentation failure of composite sandwich beams. Comp Sci Tech 57:1249–1259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Thomsen OT, Frostig Y (1997) Localized bending effects in sandwich panels:photoelastic investigation versus high-order sandwich theory results. Comp Struct 37:97–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Petras A, Sutcliffe MPF (2000) Indentation failure analysis of sandwich beams. Comp Struct 50:311–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Anderson T, Madenci E (2000) Graphite/epoxy foam sandwich panels under quasi-static indentation. Eng Fract Mech 67:329–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Plantema FJ (1966) Sandwich constructions. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hoff NJ, Mautner SE (1945) The buckling of sandwich-type panels. J Aero Sci 12:285–297.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Benson AS, Mayers J (1967) General instability and face wrinkling of sandwich plates unified theory and applications. AIAA J 5:729–739.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Hadi BK, Matthews FL (2000) Development of Benson–Mayer theory on the wrinkling of anisotropic sandwich panels. Comput Struct 49:425–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Vonach WK, Rammerstorfer FG (2000) The effect of in-plane core stiffness on the wrinkling behavior of thick sandwiches. Acta Mech 141:1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Vonach WK, Rammerstorfer FG (2000) Wrinkling of thick orthotropic sandwich plates under general loading conditions. Arch Appl Mech 70:338–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Fagerberg L (2004) Wrinkling and compression failure transition in sandwich panels. J Sand Struct Mat 6:129–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Leotoing L, Drapier S, Vautrin A (2004) Using new closed-form solutions to set up design rules and numerical investigations for global and local buckling of sandwich beams. J Sand Struct Mat 6:263–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Birman V, Bert CW (2004) Wrinkling of composite-facing sandwich panels under biaxial loading. J Sand Struct Mat 6:217–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Fagerberg L, Zenkert D (2005) Effects of anisotropy and multiaxial loading on the wrinkling of sandwich panels. J Sand Struct 7:177–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Fagerberg L, Zenkert D (2005) Imperfection-induced wrinkling material failure in sandwich panels. J Sand Struct 7:195–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Meyer-Piening H-R (2006) Sandwich plates:stresses, deflection, buckling and wrinkling loads –a case study. J Sand Struct 8:381–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hayman B, Berggreen C, Pettersen R (2007) The effect of face sheet wrinkle defects on the strength of FRP sandwich structures. J Sand Struct 9:377–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Lopatin AV, Morozov EV (2008) Symmetrical facing wrinkling of composite sandwich panels. J Sand Struct 10:475–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Heath WG (1960) Sandwich construction, Part 2:the optimum design of flat sandwich panels. Aircraft Eng 32:230–235.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Robert R. McCormick School of Engineering and Applied ScienceNorthwestern UniversityEvanstonUSA
  2. 2.School of EngineeringDemocritus University of ThraceXanthiGreece

Personalised recommendations