Advertisement

Accelerated Testing for Long-Term Durability of Various FRP Laminates for Marine Use

  • Yasushi Miyano
  • Masayuki Nakada

Abstract

The prediction of long-term fatigue life of various FRP laminates combined with resins, fibers and fabrics for marine use under temperature and water environments were performed by our developed accelerated testing methodology based on the time-temperature superposition principle (TTSP). The base material of five kinds of FRP laminates employed in this study was plain fabric CFRP laminates T300 carbon fibers/vinylester (T300/VE). The first selection of FRP laminate to T300/VE was the combinations of different fabrics, that is flat yarn plain fabric T700 carbon fibers/vinylester (T700/VE-F) and multi-axial knitted T700 carbon fibers/vinylester (T700/VE-K) for marine use and the second selection of FRP laminates to T300/VE was the combinations with different fibers and matrix resin, that is plain fabric T300 carbon fibers/epoxy (T300/EP) and plain fabric E-glass fibers/vinylester (E-glass/VE). These five kinds of FRP laminates were prepared under three water absorption conditions of Dry, Wet and Wet C Dry after molding. The three-point bending constant strain rate (CSR) tests for these FRP laminates at three conditions of water absorption were carried out at various temperatures and strain rates. Furthermore, the three-point bending fatigue tests for these specimens were carried out at various temperatures and frequencies. The flexural CSR and fatigue strengths of these five kinds of FRP laminates strongly depend on water absorption as well as time and temperature. The mater curves of fatigue strength as well as CSR strength for these FRP laminates at three water absorption conditions are constructed by using the test data based on TTSP. It is possible to predict the long term fatigue life for these FRP laminates under an arbitrary temperature and water absorption conditions by using the master curves.

Keywords

Fatigue Strength Master Curve Constant Strain Rate Matrix Resin Creep Compliance 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank the Office of Naval Research for supporting this work through an ONR award (N000140110949) with Dr. Yapa Rajapakse as the program manager of solid mechanics. The authors thank Professor Richard Christensen at Stanford University as the consultant of this project and Toray Industries, Inc. as the supplier of CFRP laminates. All of experimental data were measured by the staffs and graduate students of author's laboratory, Kanazawa Institute of Technology. The authors thank these staffs and graduate students, Dr. Naoyuki Sekine, Dr. Junji Noda, Mrs. Kumiko Saito, Ms. Jun Ichimura, Mr. Eiji Hayakawa and Mr. Takahito Uozu.

References

  1. 1.
    Aboudi J and Cederbaum G (1989) Analysis of Viscoelastic Laminated Composite Plates, Compos Struct 12:243–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sullivan J (1990) Creep and Physical Aging of Composites, Compos Sci Technol 39:207–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gates T (1992) Experimental Characterization of Nonlinear, Rate Dependent Behavior in Advanced Polymer Matrix Composites, Exp Mech 32:68–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rotem A and Nelson HG (1981) Fatigue Behavior of Graphite-Epoxy Laminates at Elevated Temperatures, In:Fatigue of Fibrous Composite Materials, ASTM STP 723:152–173Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kharrazi MR and Sarkani S (2001) Frequency-Dependent Fatigue Damage Accumulation in Fiber-Reinforced Plastics, J Compos Mater 35:1924–1953CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Miyano Y, Nakada M, McMurray MK and Muki R (1997) Prediction of Flexural Fatigue Strength of CFRP Composites Under Arbitrary Frequency, Stress Ratio and Temperature, J Compos Mater 31:619–638Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Miyano Y, Nakada M and Muki R (1999) Applicability of Fatigue Life Prediction Method to Polymer Composites, Mech Time Depend Mater 3:141–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Miyano Y, Nakada M, Kudoh H and Muki R (1999) Prediction of Tensile Fatigue Life Under Temperature Environment for Unidirectional CFRP, Adv Compos Mater 8:235–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Miyano Y, Tsai SW, Christensen RM and Kuraishi A (2001) Accelerated Testing for the Durability of Composite Materials and Structures, Long Term Durability of Structural Materials (Durability 2000), Elsevier, 265–276Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Miyano Y, Tsai SW, Christensen RM and Muki R (2002) Accelerated Testing Methodology for the Durability of Composite Materials and Structures, Proceedings of the 5th Composites Durability Workshop, Paris, pp. 1–14Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Nakada M, Miyano Y, Kinoshita M, Koga R, Okuya T and Muki R (2002) Time-Temperature Dependence of Tensile Strength of Unidirectional CFRP, J Compos Mater 36:2567–2581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Miyano Y, Nakada M, Kinoshita M, Koga R and Okuya T (2001) Time-Temperature Dependence of Tensile Strength of Unidirectional CFRP, Durability Analysis of Composite Systems 2001:169–173Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Nakada M and Miyano Y (2007) Accelerated Testing for Long-Term Durability of Various FRP Laminates for Marine Use, Proc ICCM-16, Kyoto, WeFM1-02Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Miyano Y, Kanemitsu M, Kunio T and Kuhn AH (1986) Role of Matrix Resin on Fracture Strengths of Unidirectional CFRP, J Compos Mater 20:520–538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Muki R, Nakada M, Watanabe N and Miyano Y (2004) Influence of Fiber Stiffness on Time-Temperature Dependent Tensile Strength of Unidirectional CFRP, Proc 2004 SEM International Congress and Exposition on Experimental and Applied Mechanics, Costa Mesa, 32Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Nakada M, Yoshioka K and Miyano Y (2008) Prediction of Long-Term Creep Life for Unidirectional CFRP, Proc 6th International Conference on Mechanics of Time Dependent Materials, Monterey, 88Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Miyano Y, Nakada M, Watanabe N, Murase T and Muki R (2003) Time-Temperature Superposition Principle for Tensile and Compressive Strengths of Unidirectional CFRP, Proc 2003 SEM Annual Conference &Exposition on Experimental and Applied Mechanics, Charlotte, 147Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Miyano Y, Nakada M, Kudoh H and Muki R (2000) Prediction of Tensile Fatigue Life for Unidirectional CFRP, J Compos Mater 34:538–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Miyano Y, Sekine N, Ichimura J and Nakada M (2004) Fatigue Life Prediction of CFRP Laminates Under Temperature and Moisture Environments, Proc 2004 SEM International Congress and Exposition on Experimental and Applied Mechanics, Costa Mesa, 36Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nakada M, Maeda M, Hirohata T, Morita M and Miyano Y (1996) Time and Temperature Dependencies on the Flexural Fatigue Strength in Transverse Direction of Unidirectional CFRP, Proceedings of the International Conference on Experimental Mechanics at Singapore, Singapore, pp. 492–497Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Nakada M and Miyano Y (2009) Accelerated Testing for Long-Term Fatigue Strength of Various FRP Laminates for Marine Use, Compos Sci Technol, 69:805–813CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Miyano Y, Nakada M and Nishigaki K (2006) Prediction of Long-Term Fatigue Life of Quasi-isotropic CFRP Laminates for Aircraft Use, Int J Fatigue 28:1217–1225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Nakada M, Hamagami Y, Sekine N and Miyano Y (2003) Time-Temperature Dependence of Flexural Behavior of CFRP Laminates for Aircraft Use, Proc the 8th Japan International SAMPE Symposium, Tokyo, pp. 77–80Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hamagami Y, Sekine N, Nakada M and Miyano Y (2003) Time and Temperature Dependence Flexural Strength of Heat-Resistant CFRP Laminates, JSME Int J, Series A46:437–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Miyano Y, Nakada M and Sekine N (2005) Accelerated Testing for Long-Term Durability of FRP Laminates for Marine Use, J Compos Mater 39:5–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Watanabe N, Koga R, Nakada M, Miyano Y and Muki R (2003) Time-Temperature Dependent Tensile Behavior of Unidirectional CFRP, Proc ICCM-14, San Diego, 842Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Nakada M, Miyano Y, Daicho N and Takemura S (1998) Time and Temperature Dependence on the Flexural Fatigue Behavior of Unidirectional Pitch-Based Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics, Proc ACCM-1, Osaka, 442Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Nakada M, Miyano Y, Ikeda M and Takemura S (1999) Time and Temperature Dependence of Flexural Fatigue Strength for Pitch-Based CFRP, Proc ICCM-12, Paris, 257Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Nakada M, Kosho S and Miyano Y (2001) Time-Temperature Dependence on Flexural Behavior of GFRP with Different Surface Treatment for Glass Fiber, Proc ICCM-13, Beijing, 1473Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Miyano Y, Nakada M and Muki R (1997) Prediction of Fatigue Life of a Conical Shaped Joint System for Fiber Reinforced Plastics Under Arbitrary Frequency, Load Ratio and Temperature, Mech Time Depend Mater 1:143–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Miyano Y, Tsai SW, Nakada M, Sihn S and Imai T (1997) Prediction of Tensile Fatigue Life for GFRP Adhesive Joint, Proc ICCM-11, Gold Coast, VI:26–35Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Miyano Y, Nakada M, Yonemori T, Sihn S and Tsai SW (1999) Time and Temperature Dependence of Static, Creep, and Fatigue Behavior for FRP Adhesive Joints, Proc ICCM-12, Paris, 259Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Sekine N, Nakada M, Miyano Y and Tsai SW (2001) Time-Temperature Dependence of Tensile Fatigue Strength for GFRP/Metal and CFRP/Metal Bolted Joints, Proc ICCM-13, Beijing, 1610Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Sekine N, Nakada M, Miyano Y, Kuraishi A and Tsai SW (2003) Prediction of Fatigue Life for CFRP/Metal Bolted Joint Under Temperature Conditions, JSME Int J A46:484–489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Rosen BW (1964) Tensile Failure of Fibrous Composites, AIAA J 2:1985–1991CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Christensen R and Miyano Y (2006) Stress Intensity Controlled Kinetic Crack Growth and Stress History Dependent Life Prediction with Statistical Variability, Int J Fract 137:77–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Christensen R and Miyano Y (2007) Deterministic and Probabilistic Lifetimes from Kinetic Crack Growth-Generalized Forms, Int J Fract 143:35–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Dow NF and Gruntfest IJ (1960) Space Sciences Laboratory, Structures and Dynamics Operation, T.I.S.R60SD389Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Materials System Research LaboratoryKanazawa Institute of TechnologyHakusanJapan

Personalised recommendations