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Postural Changes and Activation Tests

  • Giovanni MalferrariEmail author
  • Marialuisa Zedde
  • Patrizio Prati
Chapter

Abstract

The cerebral venous outflow depends mainly on body position, as demonstrated also by using a mathematical model by Gisolf [1].

Keywords

Jugular Vertebral Ultrasound Valve Anastomosis 

Supplementary material

Movie 3.1: Breath dynamics of J2 IJV in transverse scan by Color-mode. The wide variations of IJV section size should be signaled during the breath phases (WMV 14393 kb)

Movie 3.2: Dynamic scan of the normal and abnormal J2 CSA variations during normal breath (WMV 6116 kb)

Movie 3.3: Dynamic movement of the J1 IJV valve system in B-mode with Valsalva maneuver. It is notable the closeness of leaflets with a minimal discontinuation (AVI 2138 kb)

Movie 3.4: Dynamic movement of the J1 IJV valve system in Color-mode with Valsalva maneuver. The Valsalva maneuver determines the presence of a regurgitation jet starting from the minimal discontinuation of the leaflets closeness seen in B-mode (movie 3.3) (AVI 2528 kb)

Movie 3.5: J1 IJV in longitudinal scan by Color-mode using the Valsalva maneuver. During the straining phase the valve closes and the blood flow stops (WMV 15026 kb)

Movie 3.6: Longitudinal scan of J2 IJV with breath dynamics at normal rest condition (AVI 1377 kb)

Movie 3.7: Longitudinal scan of J2 IJV in Color-mode with the effects of Valsalva maneuver, with initial physiological rebound of the blood column (AVI 2214 kb)

Movie 3.8: Longitudinal scan of J2 IJV in Color-mode with Valsalva maneuver. It is well evident the corresponding dynamic aspect of the static figure 3.8 (AVI 2165 kb)

Movie 3.9: Dynamic longitudinal scan of J3 IJV in Color-mode with Valsalva maneuver. It is well evident the inversion of flow direction (AVI 2149 kb)

Movie 3.10: Transverse scan of J3 IJV in Color-mode, focusing on the common facial vein accompanying the external carotid artery, while J3 IJV runs with the internal carotid artery. The Valsalva maneuver causes a flow decrease to zero on J3 IJV and an inversion of flow direction (blue color) on the common facial vein (WMV 8854 kb)

References

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giovanni Malferrari
    • 1
    Email author
  • Marialuisa Zedde
    • 1
  • Patrizio Prati
    • 2
  1. 1.Stroke Unit, Neurology Unit, Dept. of Neuromotor PhysiologyArcispedale Santa Maria Nuova IRCCSReggio EmiliaItaly
  2. 2.CIDIMUTorinoItaly

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