Advertisement

Formal Education: Alphabets of Reforms and Escape

  • Shivali Tukdeo
Chapter

Abstract

Nineteenth century occupies an important place in the narrative of formal education in India for it led to the spread of Western education as well as the institutionalisation of modern Indian languages. As the project of formal learning took root, a number of necessary components came together to constitute it in concrete terms. Introduction of several institutions, their administration, financial arrangements, teacher preparation and the development of curricula became the elements of the transplant. In this chapter, I pay attention to the indigenisation of education policy and institutions in nineteenth century and contestations that it generated. In many ways, formal education became the central entity around which debates of Indian and the other, deshi and videshi, learning to serve and protect played out. An attention to the development of policy, its import, setting up of institutions and the elements from “above” that work towards establishing a system have been part of the political economy of colonial expansion. These relations are also part of the culture and knowledge exchange between Britain and India, the spread of modern education and how it is embedded in the relations of caste, class and gender. Politics of education articulated in the context of caste power, patriarchy and gendered practices is critical to understand the negotiations and contestations carried out by various actors.

Keywords

Western learning colonialism policy production indigenous education Jotirao Phule Ramabai 

References

  1. Anagol, P. (2005). The emergence of feminism in India, 1850–1920. Burlington: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  2. Bannerjee, S. (2010). Becoming imperial citizens: Indians in late Victorian Empire. Durham: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Basu, A. (1974). The growth of educational and political development in India. Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Bayly, C. A. (1988). Indian society and the making of the British Empire. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bhattacharya, S., Bara, J., & Yagati, C. R. (Eds.). (2003). Educating the nation: Documents on the discourse of national education in India, 1880–1920. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers and Distributors, and Jawaharlal Nehru University.Google Scholar
  6. Burton, A. (1990). The white woman’s burden: British feminists and the Indian woman, 1865-1915. Women’s Studies International Forum, 13(4), 295–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Burton, A. (1998). At the heart of the empire. Indians and the colonial encounter in the late Victorian Britain. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  8. Burton, A. (2003). Dwelling in the archive: Women writing house, home, and history in late colonial India. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Carnoy, M. (1974). Education as cultural imperialism. New York: Longman.Google Scholar
  10. Chakravarti, U. (1989). Whatever happened to the Vedic dasi? Orientalism, nationalism and a script for the past. In K. Sangari & S. Vaid (Eds.), Recasting women: Essays in colonial history (pp. 27–87). New Delhi: Kali for Women.Google Scholar
  11. Chakravarti, U. (1998). Rewriting history: The life and times of Pandita Ramabai. New Delhi: Kali for Women.Google Scholar
  12. Chakravarti, U. (2012). Re-thinking the goals of education: Some thoughts on women’s education and women’s development. Contemporary Education Dialogue, 9(2):223–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chandra, S. (2012). The sexual life of English: Languages of caste and desire in colonial India. Durham: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dirks, N. B. (2002). Castes of mind: Colonialism and the making of modern India. New Delhi: Permanent Black. First published in 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gokhale, J. (1993). From concessions to confrontation: The politics of an Indian untouchable community. Bombay: Popular Prakashan.Google Scholar
  16. Grewal, I. (1996). Home and Harlem: Nation, empire, gender and the culture of travel. Durham: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gurukkal, R. (2016). An introductory outline of knowledge production in pre-colonial India. Indian Journal of History of Science, 51(1), 9–21.Google Scholar
  18. Joshi, T. L. (1996). Jotirao Phule. New Delhi: National Book Trust.Google Scholar
  19. Kosambi, D. D. (1962). Myth and reality: Studies in the formation of Indian culture. Bombay: Popular Publisher.Google Scholar
  20. Kosambi, M. (1988). Women, emancipation and equality: Pandita Ramabai’s contribution to women’s cause. Economic and Political Weekly., 23(44), 38–49.Google Scholar
  21. Kosambi, M. (1996, December 7). Anandibai Joshee: Retrieving a fragmented feminist image. Economic and Political Weekly, 3193.Google Scholar
  22. Kosambi, M. (2000). A window in the prison house: Women’s education and the politics of social reform in nineteenth century Western India. History of Education, 29(5), 433–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kumar, K. (1991). Political agenda of education. A study of colonialist and nationalist ideas. New Delhi: Sage.Google Scholar
  24. Kumar, N. (Ed.). (1994). Women as subjects. South Asian histories. New Delhi: Stree.Google Scholar
  25. Kumar, K., & Oesterheld, J. (Eds.). (2007). Education and social change in South Asia. Hyderabad: Orient and Longman.Google Scholar
  26. Naik, J. P. (1943). A review of modern education in India (1813–1942). Poona: Aryabhushan Press.Google Scholar
  27. Naik, J. P. (Ed.). (1958). A review of education in Bombay state. 1855–1955. Bombay: Asia Publishing House.Google Scholar
  28. Naik, J. P. (1997). The education commission and after. New Delhi: APH Publishing.Google Scholar
  29. Naik, J. P. (1979). Equality quality and quantity: The elusive triangle in Indian education. International Review of Education, 25(2/3), 167–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Nurullah, S., & Naik, J. P. (1943). History of education in India. Bombay: Mcmillan & Co.Google Scholar
  31. Nurullah, S., & Naik, J. P. (1955). A history of education in India during the British period. Bombay: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  32. Mani, L. (1998). Contested traditions: The debates on sati in colonial India. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  33. McCully, B. T. (1966). English education and the origins of Indian nationalism. Gloucester: Peter Smith.Google Scholar
  34. Metcalf, T. (1995). Ideologies of the Raj. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. O’Hanlon, R. (2002). Caste, conflict and ideology: Mahatma Jotirao Phule and low caste protest in nineteenth-century western India. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Omvedt, G. (1976a). Cultural revolt in a colonial society: Non-Brahmin movement in Western India, 1873–1930. Bombay: Scientific Socialist Education Trust.Google Scholar
  37. Omvedt, G. (1976b). Cultural revolt in a colonial society. In The non-Brahman movement in Western India, 1873 to 1930. Bombay: Scientific Socialist Education Trust.Google Scholar
  38. Omvedt, G. (1995). Dalit visions: The anti-caste movement and the construction of an Indian identity. New Delhi: Orient and Longman.Google Scholar
  39. Omvedt, G. (2008). Seeking Begumpura: The social vision of anticaste intellectuals. New Delhi: Navayana Publications.Google Scholar
  40. Paik, S. (2014). Dalit Women’s education in modern India: Double discrimination. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  41. Panikkar, K. N. (2001). Whither Indian education? Seminar presentation at the national convention against communalisation of education in Nalini Taneja (2001) national convention against communalisation of education: A report. Social Scientist, 29(9–10), 77–91.Google Scholar
  42. Paranjpe, M. R. (Ed.). (1938). A source book of modern Indian education, 1797 to 1902. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  43. Parulekar, R. V. (1951). Survey of indigenous education in the province of Bombay, 1820–1830. Bombay: Asia Publishing House.Google Scholar
  44. Phule, J. G. (1881). Shetkaryacha Asud. Mumbai: M.R S.S. Mandal.Google Scholar
  45. Phule, J. (1969). Introduction to the ‘Shetkaryacha Asud’ (Cultivator’s Whipcord). In D. Keer & S. G. Malshe (Eds.), Mahatma Phule Samagra Vangmay. Mumbai: M.R S.S. Mandal.Google Scholar
  46. Phule, J. (2002). In G. P. Deshpande (Ed.), Selected writings of Mahatma Phule. New Delhi: Leftword Publications.Google Scholar
  47. Ramabai, S. (1886). Indian religion. Cheltenham Ladies College Magazine, 13, 106–118.Google Scholar
  48. Ramabai, S. (1887). The high caste Hindu woman. Philadelphia: J.B. Rodgers.Google Scholar
  49. Ramabai, S. (1888). The high-caste Hindu woman. London: George Bell and Sons.Google Scholar
  50. Ramabai, S. (1889). Pandita Ramabai’s American encounter: The peoples of the United States. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  51. Ramanna, M. (1995). The content of the curriculum: Bombay’s Educational Institutions, 1824-1854. Indica, 32(1), 1–12.Google Scholar
  52. Rao, P. V. (2008). Nationalism and the visibility of women in public space: Tilak’s criticism of Rakhmabai and Ramabai. Indian Historical Review, 35(2), 155–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Rao, P. (2013). Promiscuous crowd of English Smatterers: The “poor” in the colonial and national discourse on education in India, 1835-1912. Contemporary Education Dialogue, 10(2), 232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Rao, P. V. (Ed.). (2014). New perspectives on history of education. New Delhi: Orient Black Swan.Google Scholar
  55. Rege, S. (2010, October 30). Education as Trutiya Ratna: Towards Phule-Ambedkarite feminist pedagogical practice. Economic and Political Weekly, 45(44–45), 88–98.Google Scholar
  56. Sangari, K., & Vaid, S. (1989). Recasting women: Essays in colonial history. New Delhi: Kali for Women.Google Scholar
  57. Sarkar, T. (2002). Stri-Shiksha and its terrors: Re-reading nineteenth century debates on reform. In S. Chaudhuri & S. Mukherji (Eds.), Literature and gender (pp. 153–184). New Delhi: Orient Longman.Google Scholar
  58. Sarkar, S., & Sarkar, T. (2008). Women and social reform in India: A reader. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  59. Seth, S. (2007). Subject lessons: The Western education of colonial India. Durham: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Travers, R. (2007). Ideology and Empire in Eighteenth-Century India: The British in Bengal. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Trevelyan, C. (1838). On the education of the people of India. London: Longman, Orme, Brown, Green and Longman.Google Scholar
  62. Venkatesh, K. (2016). Education for liberation: Exploring Mahatma Phule’s work in education. Contemporary Education Dialogue, 13(1), 121–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Viswanathan, G. (1989). Masks of conquest. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  64. Zastoupil, L., & Moir, M. (1999). The great Indian education debate: Documents relating to the orientalist- anglicist controversy, 1781–1843. Richmond: Curzon.Google Scholar
  65. Zelliot, E. (1992). From untouchable to Dalit. New Delhi: Manohar.Google Scholar
  66. Zelliot, E. (2004). Ambedkar’s world: The making of Babasaheb and the Dalit movement. New Delhi: Navayana Publishing.Google Scholar
  67. Zelliot, E. (2014). Dalit initiatives in education, 1880–1992. In P. V. Rao (Ed.), New perspectives on history of education. New Delhi: Orient Black Swan.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature India Private Limited 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shivali Tukdeo
    • 1
  1. 1.National Institute of Advanced StudiesBangaloreIndia

Personalised recommendations