In-Toeing and Out-Toeing Gait
In-toeing and out-toeing, or inward and outward rotation of the foot with respect to the direction of walking, respectively, are common reasons for parental concerns and referral for a specialist opinion. A normal range of values can be considered to lie within two standard deviations on either side of the mean of the values for a given population (Jacquemier et al. 2008) (Fig. 21.1).
KeywordsFemoral Anteversion Tibial Torsion Derotation Osteotomy Femoral Torsion Outward Rotation
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