Early Interventions in Allergic Diseases

  • L. Karla ArrudaEmail author
  • Dirceu Solé
  • Charles K. Naspitz
Part of the Allergy Frontiers book series (ALLERGY, volume 5)

Atopy has been defined as the genetic predisposition to develop IgE antibody responses to a variety of common environmental allergens. Clinically, atopy is expressed by asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and atopic dermatitis. It has been recognized that the “atopic march” evolves from food allergy and atopic dermatitis in the first 2 years of life, followed by asthma and allergic rhinitis. Over the past 30 years, the prevalence of allergies and asthma has increased significantly in developed countries, and asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases in children. Evidence indicates that environmental factors acting early in life, including respiratory viral infections, exposure to pets and microbial products, day-care attendance, breast feeding, and exposure to allergens, tobacco smoke and other pollutants, are key events for establishment of sensitization and development of chronic, persistent symptoms of allergic diseases [1]. It is thought that gene—environment interactions play a crucial role in these processes. Therefore, attempts to successfully prevent development of allergic diseases should be a priority.

At present, there are no genetic markers for atopy or asthma which could be used routinely in clinical practice and family history of atopy has been used to identify children genetically at-risk of developing allergic diseases. These children from high-risk families have been the focus of most of the intervention studies.


Atopic Dermatitis Respiratory Syncytial Virus Allergic Rhinitis Allergic Disease Allergy Clin Immunol 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. Karla Arruda
    • 1
    Email author
  • Dirceu Solé
    • 2
  • Charles K. Naspitz
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of Clinical Immunology, Department of MedicineSchool of Medicine of Riberão Preto, University of São PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Division of Allergy, Clinical Immunology and RheumatologyFederal University of São PauloSão PauloBrazil

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