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Regulation of Sperm-Egg Fusion at the Plasma Membrane

  • Kenji Miyado
  • Kenji Yamatoya
  • Woojin Kang
  • Natsuko Kawano
Chapter
Part of the Diversity and Commonality in Animals book series (DCA)

Abstract

In fertilization, two types of gametes—sperm and egg—unite in a stepwise approach to create a single fertilized cell, which is capable of naturally developing into a new individual. Notably, membrane fusion occurring intercellularly between a sperm and an egg is essential for fertilization. In mammals, two integral membrane proteins, Izumo1 on the sperm plasma membrane and Cd9 on the egg plasma membrane, regulate sperm-egg fusion, and a new study has found a novel Izumo1 receptor, Juno, on the egg plasma membrane. Besides germ cells, Cd9 is expressed in a wide variety of cells, implying a close relationship between general fusion-related phenomena and sperm-egg fusion in particular. In invertebrate animals and in plants, Gcs1 plays an essential role in sperm-egg fusion. Considerable efforts are being devoted to understanding the molecular basis of cell-cell fusion; however, the exact mechanism(s) of the fusion process remain unclear. In this chapter we highlight the functions of some major molecules involved in the sperm-egg fusion and also discuss a possible molecular mechanism underlying this fusion.

Keywords

Membrane fusion Cd9 Izumo1 Juno Gcs1 Microvilli Tetraspanin Microexosome 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This review was supported by a grant from The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, and a grant-in-aid for Scientific Research, The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, and Technology of Japan. We have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Japan KK, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kenji Miyado
    • 1
  • Kenji Yamatoya
    • 1
    • 2
  • Woojin Kang
    • 3
  • Natsuko Kawano
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Reproductive BiologyNational Research Institute for Child Health and DevelopmentSetagaya, TokyoJapan
  2. 2.Department of Perinatal Medicine and Maternal CareNational Center for Child Health and DevelopmentSetagaya, TokyoJapan
  3. 3.Department of Life Sciences, School of AgricultureMeiji UniversityKawasakiJapan

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