Supplementary Material

  • Alexander NickolaenkoEmail author
  • Masashi Hayakawa
Part of the Springer Geophysics book series (SPRINGERGEOPHYS)


This chapter contains material used in the previous chapters; explanations and the program listing. We describe the formalism connecting the vertical profiles of atmosphere conductivity with ELF propagation constant. Formulas are given for the frequency domain and time domain solutions of pulsed radio propagation in the Earth–ionosphere cavity. These equations were used when obtaining the model results used throughout the book, and these are exploited in the relevant FORTRAM listings in this chapter. Spectra and waveforms are shown. We discuss the impact of frequency characteristics of typical SR receiver on the spectra and the waveforms of ELF transients. Compensating the phase distortions is addressed. Separate sections present formulas of spherical trigonometry and we demonstrate the essentials of singular spectral analysis (SSA) (‘Caterpillar’ algorithm). The listings are given for the field computations in the time and frequency domains.


Propagation constant Vertical profiles of atmosphere conductivity Model Q–burst spectra Waveforms of ELF transients Impact of SR receiver Time domain solution Formulas of spherical trigonometry Caterpillar procedure Listing of typical routines for field computations 

Supplementary material

Supplementary material 1 (AVI 3091 kb)

Supplementary material 2 (AVI 661 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Academy of Sciences of the UkraineKharkovUkraine
  2. 2.The University of Electro-CommunicationsTokyoJapan

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