Advertisement

The Chemistry of the Lipoids of the Tubercle Bacillus and certain other Microorganisms

  • R. J. Anderson
Chapter
Part of the Fortschritte der Chemie Organischer Naturstoffe book series (FORTCHEMIE (closed), volume 3)

Abstract

The lipoids of the tubercle bacillus and of other acid-fast bacilli represent very important fractions ranging from about 20% to 40% of the dry bacteria. The large percentage of lipoids early attracted the attention of chemists and of biologists after it was discovered that the bacterial lipoids possessed important cell stimulating properties. The discovery of the tubercle bacillus was reported by Koch (1) in 1882 and the first chemical investigation of the organism was reported by Hammerschlag (2) in 1888 who found that some 28% of the dry bacilli were soluble in alcohol and ether. These early observations were followed by numerous investigations in which various strains of bacilli and sometimes mixtures of human and bovine types of bacilli grown on different media were used (3). Lack of uniformity of materials and methods naturally led to differences in results and it was difficult to evaluate or compare the work from different laboratories. The introduction of synthetic media, such as those of Sauton (4) and Long (5), however, made it possible to cultivate the bacilli under uniform and standard conditions.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Koch, R.: Berl. klin. Wschr. 19, 221 (1882).Google Scholar
  2. Hammerschlag, A.: S.-B. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 13. Dezember 1888;Google Scholar
  3. 2a.
    Hammerschlag, A.: Mh. Chem. 10, 9 (1889).Google Scholar
  4. 3.
    de Schweinitz, E. A. and M. Dorset: J. Amer. chem. Soc. 17, 605 (1895);Google Scholar
  5. 3a.
    25, 354 (1903).Google Scholar
  6. 3b.
    Klebs, E.: Zbl. Bakteriol. 20, 488 (1896).Google Scholar
  7. 3c.
    Ruppel, W. G.: Z. physiol. Chem. 26, 218 (1898/99).Google Scholar
  8. 3d.
    Aronson, H.: Berl. klin. Wschr. 35, 484 (1898).Google Scholar
  9. 3e.
    Levene, P. A.: J. med. Res. 6, 135 (1901).Google Scholar
  10. 3f.
    Kresling, K.: Zbl. Bakteriol. 1. Abt. 30, 897 (1901).Google Scholar
  11. 3g.
    Bulloch, W. and J. J. R. Macleod: J. Hyg. 4, 1 (1904).Google Scholar
  12. 3h.
    Baudran, G.: C. R. Acad. Sciences 142, 657 (1906).Google Scholar
  13. 3i.
    Auclair, J. et L. Paris: Arch. méd. expér. et anat. Path. 19, 129 (1907);Google Scholar
  14. 3ia.
    20, 737 (1908).Google Scholar
  15. 3j.
    Tamura, S.: Z. physiol. Chem. 87, 85 (1913)Google Scholar
  16. 3k.
    Agulhon, H. et A. Frouin: Bull. Soc. Chim. biol. 1, 176 (1919)Google Scholar
  17. 3l.
    Kozniewski, T.: Bull. internat. Acad. Sci. Cracovie, Sér. A 1912, 942.Google Scholar
  18. 3m.
    Frouin, A.: C. R. Acad. Sciences 170, 1471 (1920);Google Scholar
  19. 3n.
    — C. R. Séances Soc. Biol. 84, 606 (1921).Google Scholar
  20. 3o.
    Aronson, H.: Berl. klin. Wschr. 47, 1617 (1910).Google Scholar
  21. 3p.
    Terroine, E. F. et J. E. Lobstein: Bull. Soc. Chim. biol. 5, 182 (1923).Google Scholar
  22. 3q.
    Long, E. R. and L. K. Campbell: Amer. Rev. Tbc. 6, 636 (1922).Google Scholar
  23. 4.
    Sauton, B.: C. R. Acad. Sciences 155, 860 (1912).Google Scholar
  24. 5.
    Long, E. R. and F. B. Seibert: Amer. Rev. Tbc. 13, 393 (1926).Google Scholar
  25. 6.
    Seibert, F. B. and M. T. Hanke: J. biol. Chemistry 76, 535 (1928).Google Scholar
  26. 6a.
    Seibert, F. B.: J. biol. Chemistry 78, 345 (1928);Google Scholar
  27. 6b.
    — Amer. Rev. Tbc. 17, 394 (1928).Google Scholar
  28. 6ba.
  29. 6c.
    Seibert, F. B. and B. Munday: Amer. Rev. Tbc. 23, 23 (1931).Google Scholar
  30. 6d.
    Seibert, F. B.: J. infect. Dis. 51, 383 (1932).Google Scholar
  31. 6e.
    Seibert, F. B. and N. Moreley: J. Immunol. 24, 149 (1933).Google Scholar
  32. 6f.
    Munday, B. and F. B. Seibert: J. biol. Chemistry 100, 277 (1933).Google Scholar
  33. 6g.
    Seibert, F. B. and B. Munday: J. biol. Chemistry 101, 763 (1933)Google Scholar
  34. 6h.
    Seibert, F. B., J. D. Aronson, J. Reichel, L. T. Clark, and E. R. Long: Amer. Rev. Tbc, Suppl. 30, 707 (1934).Google Scholar
  35. 6i.
    Spiegel-Adolph, M. and F. B. Seibert: J. biol. Chemistry 106, 373 (1934).Google Scholar
  36. 6k.
    Seibert, F. B.: J. Bacter. 29, 31 (1935).Google Scholar
  37. 6l.
    Nelson, W. E., F. B. Seibert, and E. R. Long: J. amer. med. Assoc. 108, 2179 (1937).Google Scholar
  38. 6m.
    Seibert, F. B.: Amer. chem. Soc. 59, 958 (1937).Google Scholar
  39. 6n.
    Long, E. R. and F. B. Seibert: Amer. Rev. Tbc. 35, 281 (1937).Google Scholar
  40. 6o.
    Seibert, F. B., K. O. Pederson, and A. Tiselius: J. exper. Med. 68, 413 (1938);Google Scholar
  41. 6p.
    — Amer. Rev. Tbc. 38, 399 (1938).Google Scholar
  42. 7.
    Heidelberger, M. and A. E. O. Menzel: Science (New York) 77, 24 (1933);Google Scholar
  43. 7a.
    J. biol. Chemistry 104, 655 (1934);Google Scholar
  44. 7b.
    118, 79 (1937)Google Scholar
  45. 7c.
    Menzel, A. E. O. and M. Heidelberger: J. biol. Chemistry 124, 89 (1938).Google Scholar
  46. 7d.
  47. 8.
    Calmette, A.: Tubercle bacillus infection and tuberculosis in man and animals. Authorized translation by W. B. Soper and G. H. Smith, p. 61. Baltimore, 1923.Google Scholar
  48. 9.
    Wells, H. G. and E. R. Long: The chemistry of Tuberculosis, 2nd edition. Baltimore, 1932.Google Scholar
  49. 10.
    Goris, A.: Ann. Inst. Pasteur, Par. 34, 497 (1920).Google Scholar
  50. 11.
    Anderson, R. J.: Physiol. Rev. 12, 166 (1932).Google Scholar
  51. 12.
    Long, E. R.: Z. Tbk. 64, 78 (1932).Google Scholar
  52. 13.
    Hecht, E.: Z. Tbk. 74, 28 (1935).Google Scholar
  53. 14.
    Tyabji, A.: Zbl. Bakteriol., I. Abt. 118, 241 (1935).Google Scholar
  54. 15.
    Chargaff, E.: Handbuch der biologischen Arbeitsmethoden von E. Abderhalden, Abt. 12, Teil 2, S. 79: 1933.Google Scholar
  55. 16.
    Albert-Weil, J.: Les poisons du bacille tuberculeux et les reactions cellulaires et humorales dans la tuberculose. Paris, 1931.Google Scholar
  56. 17.
    Pinner, M.: Die Serodiagnose der Tuberkulose. Tuberkulose-Bibliothek, Nr. 28, Beih. Z. Tbk., 1927.Google Scholar
  57. 18.
    Sabin, F. R. and C. A. Doan: Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA. 13, 552 (1927).Google Scholar
  58. 18a.
    Sabin, F. R., C. A. Doan, and C. E. Forkner: J. exper. Med. 52, Suppl. 3, 1 (1930)Google Scholar
  59. 18b.
  60. 18c.
    Doan, C. A., F. R. Sabin, and C. E. Forkner: J. exper. Med. 52, Suppl. 3, 73 (1930).Google Scholar
  61. 18d.
    Sabin, F. R., F. R. Miller, C. A. Doan, and B. K. Wiseman: J. exper. Med. 53, 51 (1931).Google Scholar
  62. 18e.
    Smithburn, K. C. and F. R. Sabin: J. exper. Med. 56, 867 (1932)Google Scholar
  63. 18f.
    Sabin, F. R.: Physiol. Rev. 12, 141 (1932).Google Scholar
  64. 18g.
    Smithburn, K. C., F. R. Sabin, and J. T. Geiger: Amer. Rev. Tbc. 29, 562 (1934).Google Scholar
  65. 18h.
    Sabin, F. R., K. C. Smithburn, and R. M. Thomas: J. exper. Med. 62, 751 (1935).Google Scholar
  66. 18ha.
  67. 18i.
    Smithburn, K. C. and F. R. Sabin: J. exper. Med. 61, 771 (1935).Google Scholar
  68. 18j.
    Sabin, F.R., A. L. Joyner, and K. C. Smithburn: J. exper. Med. 68, 563 (1938).Google Scholar
  69. 18k.
    Smithburn, K. C. and F. R. Sabin: J. exper. Med. 68, 641 (1938).Google Scholar
  70. 18l.
    Sabin, F. R.: J. exper. Med. 68, 837 (1938).Google Scholar
  71. 18m.
    Sabin, F. R. and A. L. Joyner: J. exper. Med. 68, 853 (1938).Google Scholar
  72. 18n.
    Sabin, F. R.: J. exper. Med. 70, 67 (1939).Google Scholar
  73. 19.
    Meyer, K.: Z. Immunitätsforschg. exp. Therap. 14, 355 (1912);Google Scholar
  74. 19a.
  75. 19b.
    15, 245 (1912);Google Scholar
  76. 19c.
    21, 654 (1914).Google Scholar
  77. 20.
    Nègre, L. et A. Boquet: Antigènothérapie de la Tuberculose. Paris: Masson et Cie., 1927.Google Scholar
  78. 21.
    Dienes, L. and E. W. Schoenheit: J. Immunol 10, 631 (1925). Google Scholar
  79. 22.
    Pinner, M.: Amer. Rev. Tbc. 18, 497 (1928).Google Scholar
  80. 23.
    Doan, C. A.: Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. Med. 26, 672 (1929).Google Scholar
  81. 24.
    — and D. M. Moore: Amer. Rev. Tbc. 23, 409 (1931).Google Scholar
  82. 25.
    Macheboeuf, M., G. Lévy, N. Fethke, J. Dieryck et A. Bonnefoi: Ann. Inst. Pasteur, Par. 52, 277 (1934).Google Scholar
  83. 25a.
    Macheboeuf, M., G. Lévy et M. Chambaz: Ann. Inst. Pasteur, Par. 53, 591 (1934).Google Scholar
  84. 25b.
    Macheboeuf, M., J. Dieryck et R. Stoop: Ann. Inst. Pasteur, Par. 54, 71 (1935).Google Scholar
  85. 25c.
    Macheboeuf, M., G. Lévy, N. Fethke, J. Dieryck et A. Bonnefoi: Bull. Soc. Chim. biol. 16, 355 (1934).Google Scholar
  86. 25d.
    Macheboeuf, M. et J. Dieryck: C. R. Séances Soc. Biol. 119, 917 (1935).Google Scholar
  87. 25e.
    Macheboeuf, M., G. Lévy et M. Faure: C. R. Acad. Sciences 200, 1547 (1935)Google Scholar
  88. 25f.
    Macheboeuf, M. et J. Dieryck: C. R. Acad. Sciences 202, 164 (1936)Google Scholar
  89. 25g.
    Macheboeuf, M., G. Lévy, et M. Faure: C. R. Acad. Sciences 204, 1843 (1937)Google Scholar
  90. 25h.
    Macheboeuf, M.: C. R. Trav. Lab. Carlsberg, Sér. Chim. 22, 342 (1938)Google Scholar
  91. 25i.
    Macheboeuf, M., G. Levy et M. Chambaz: Bull. Soc. Chim. biol. 17, 1194 (1935).Google Scholar
  92. 25j.
    Macheboeuf, M. et A. Bonnefoi: Bull. Soc. Chim. biol. 17, 1201 (1935).Google Scholar
  93. 25k.
    Macheboeuf, M., G. Lévy, et M. Faure: Bull. Soc. Chim. biol. 17, 1210 (1935).Google Scholar
  94. 26.
    Anderson, R. J.: J. biol. Chemistry 74, 525 (1927).Google Scholar
  95. 27.
    — and E. G. Roberts: J. biol. Chemistry 85, 509 (1930).Google Scholar
  96. 28.
    — — J. biol. Chemistry 85, 529 (1930).Google Scholar
  97. 29.
    Chargaff, E., M. C. Pangborn, and R. J. Anderson: J. biol. Chemistry 90, 45 (1931).Google Scholar
  98. 30.
    Uyei, N. and R. J. Anderson: J. biol. Chemistry 94, 653 (1932).Google Scholar
  99. 31.
    Boissevain, C. H. and C. T. Ryder: Amer. Rev. Tbc. 24, 751 (1931).Google Scholar
  100. 32.
    Anderson, R. J.: J. biol. Chemistry 74, 537 (1927).Google Scholar
  101. 33.
    — J. biol. Chemistry 74, 537 (1927).Google Scholar
  102. 33a.
    Anderson, R. J. and E. G. Roberts: J. biol. Chemistry 85, 519 (1930);Google Scholar
  103. 33b.
    89, 599 (1930).Google Scholar
  104. 33c.
    Anderson, R. J., E. G. Roberts, and A. G. Renfrew: Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. Med. 27, 387 (1930).Google Scholar
  105. 33d.
    Anderson, R. J. and A. G. Renfrew: J. Amer. chem. Soc. 52, 1252 1930).Google Scholar
  106. 33e.
    Anderson, R. J.: J. Amer. chem. Soc. 52, 1007 (1930).Google Scholar
  107. 33f.
    Pang-born, M. C. and R. J. Anderson: J. biol. Chemistry 94, 465 (1931).Google Scholar
  108. 33g.
    Anderson, R. J. and N. Uyei: J. biol. Chemistry 97, 617 (1932).Google Scholar
  109. 34.
    Crowder, J.A., F. H. Stodola, M. C. Pangborn, and R. J. Anderson: J. Amer. chem. Soc. 58, 636 (1936).Google Scholar
  110. 35.
    Chargaff, E.: Z. physiol. Chem. 217, 115 (1933).Google Scholar
  111. 36.
    Voorhees, V. and R. Adams: J. Amer. chem. Soc. 44, 1397 (1922).Google Scholar
  112. 37.
    Anderson, R. J. and N. Uyei: J. biol. Chemistry 97, 617 (1932).Google Scholar
  113. 38.
    — J. biol. Chemistry 83, 169 (1929).Google Scholar
  114. 39.
    — and E. G. Roberts: J. biol. Chemistry 89, 599 (1930).Google Scholar
  115. 40.
    — J. Amer. chem. Soc. 52, 5023 (1930).Google Scholar
  116. 41.
    W. C. Lothrop, and M. M. Creighton: J. biol. Chemistry 125, 299 (1938).Google Scholar
  117. 42.
    du Mont, H. u. R. J. Anderson: Z. physiol. Chem. 211, 97 (1932).Google Scholar
  118. 43.
    Bloch, K.: Z. physiol. Chem. 244, 1 (1936).Google Scholar
  119. 44.
    Kasuya, I.: J. Biochemistry (Jap.) 27, 283 (1938).Google Scholar
  120. 45.
    — J. Amer. chem. Soc. 59, 2742 (1937).Google Scholar
  121. 46.
    Bulloch, W. and J. J. R. Macleod: J. Hyg. 4, 1 (1904).Google Scholar
  122. 47.
    Agulhon, H. et A. Frouin: Bull. Soc. Chim. biol. 1, 176 (1919)Google Scholar
  123. 48.
    Koganei, R.: J. Biochemistry (Jap.) 1, 353 (1922).Google Scholar
  124. 49.
    Anderson, R. J. and E. Chargaff: J. biol. Chemistry 84, 703 (1929).Google Scholar
  125. 50.
    Burt, M. L. and R. J. Anderson: J. biol. Chemistry 94, 451 (1931).Google Scholar
  126. 51.
    Pangborn, M. G., E. Chargaff, and R. J. Anderson: J. biol. Chemistry 98, 43 (1932).Google Scholar
  127. 52.
    Anderson, R.J. and M.S. Newman: J. biol. Chemistry 101, 499 (1933).Google Scholar
  128. 53.
    R.E. Reeves, and J. A. Crowder: J. biol. Chemistry 121, 669 (1937)Google Scholar
  129. 54.
    de Schweinitz, E. A. and M. Dorset: J. Amer. chem. Soc. 17, 605 (1895); 18, 449 (1896).Google Scholar
  130. 55.
    Baudran, G.: C. R. Acad. Sciences 142, 657 (1906).Google Scholar
  131. 56.
    Varrentrapp, F.: Liebigs Ann. Chem. 35, 196 (1840).Google Scholar
  132. 57.
    Twitchell, E.: Ind. Engng. Chem. 13, 807 (1921).Google Scholar
  133. 58.
    Anderson, R.J. and E. Chargaff: J. biol. Chemistry 85, 77 (1929).Google Scholar
  134. 59.
    — J. biol. Chemistry 97, 639 (1932).Google Scholar
  135. 60.
    Spielman, M. A. and R.J. Anderson: J. biol. Chemistry 112, 759 (1936).Google Scholar
  136. 61.
    Wieghard, C. W. and R. J. Anderson: J. biol. Chemistry 126, 515 (1938).Google Scholar
  137. 62.
    Spielman, M. A.: J. biol. Chemistry 106, 87 (1934).Google Scholar
  138. 63.
    Wagner-Jauregg, Th.: Z. physiol. Chem. 247, 135 (1937).Google Scholar
  139. 64.
    Anderson, R. J.: J. biol. Chemistry 83, 505 (1929).Google Scholar
  140. 65.
    — J. biol. Chemistry 85, 339 (1929).Google Scholar
  141. 66.
    — J. biol. Chemistry 85, 351 (1929).Google Scholar
  142. 67.
    Aronson, H.: Bed. klin. Wschr. 35, 484 (1898).Google Scholar
  143. 68.
    Stodola, F. H., A. Lesuk, and R.J. Anderson: J. biol. Chemistry 126, 505 (1938).Google Scholar
  144. 69.
    Anderson, R. J.: J. biol. Chemistry 85, 351 (1929).Google Scholar
  145. 70.
    Roberts, E.G. and R. J. Anderson: J. biol. Chemistry 90, 33 (1931).Google Scholar
  146. 71.
    Heidelberger, M. and A. E. O. Menzel: J. biol. Chemistry 118, 79 (1937).Google Scholar
  147. 72.
    Pangborn, M. C. and R. J. Anderson: J. Amer. chem. Soc. 58, 10 (1936).Google Scholar
  148. 73.
    Reeves, R. E. and R.J. Anderson: J. Amer. chem. Soc. 59, 858 (1937).Google Scholar
  149. 74.
    Anderson, R.J. and M. M. Creighton: J. biol. Chemistry 129, 57 (1939).Google Scholar
  150. 75.
    Cason, J. and R.J. Anderson: J. biol. Chemistry 126, 527 (1938).Google Scholar
  151. 76.
    Palmer, J. W., E.M. Smyth, and K. Meyer: J. biol. Chemistry 119, 491 (1937).Google Scholar
  152. 77.
    Robertson, P. W.: J. chem. Soc. London 115, 1210 (1919).Google Scholar
  153. 78.
    Cason, J. and R. J. Anderson: J. biol. Chemistry 119, 549 (1937).Google Scholar
  154. 79.
    Anderson, R. J., J. A. Crowder, M. S. Newman, and F. H. Stodola: J. biol. Chemistry 113, 637 (1936).Google Scholar
  155. 80.
    — J. biol. Chemistry 85, 327 (1929).Google Scholar
  156. 81.
    Dorset, M. u. J.A. Emery: Zbl. Bakteriol., I. Abt., Ref. 37, 363 (1906).Google Scholar
  157. 82.
    Fontes, A.: Zbl, Bakteriol., I. Abt., Orig. 49, 317 (1909).Google Scholar
  158. 83.
    Panzer, T.: Z. physiol. Chem. 78, 414 (1912).Google Scholar
  159. 84.
    Bürger, M.: Biochem. Z. 78, 155 (1916).Google Scholar
  160. 85.
    Crowder, J. A., F. H. Stodola, and R.J. Anderson: J. biol. Chemistry 114, 431 (1936).Google Scholar
  161. 86.
    Stendal, N.: C. R. Acad. Sciences 198, 1549 (1934).Google Scholar
  162. 87.
    Stodola, F. H. and R.J. Anderson: J, biol. Chemistry 214, 467 (1936).Google Scholar
  163. 88.
    Reeves, R. E. and R.J. Anderson: J, biol. Chemistry 119, 535 (1937).Google Scholar
  164. 89.
    Cason, J, and R. J. Anderson: J. biol. Chemistry 119, 549 (1937).Google Scholar
  165. 90.
    Anderson, R. J. and M, S. Newman: J. biol. Chemistry 101, 773 (1933).Google Scholar
  166. 91.
    — J. biol. Chemistry 103, 197 (1933).Google Scholar
  167. 92.
    — J. biol. Chemistry 103, 405 (1933)Google Scholar
  168. 93.
    Newman, M.S., J. A. Crowder, and R.J. Anderson: J. biol. Chemistry 105. 279 (1934).Google Scholar
  169. 94.
    Ball, E. G.: J. biol. Chemistry 106, 515 (1934).Google Scholar
  170. 95.
    Hill, E. S.: Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. Med. 35, 363 (1936).Google Scholar
  171. 96.
    Ball, E.G.: J. Amer. chem. Soc. 59, 2071 (1937).Google Scholar
  172. 97.
    Lugg, J.W. H., A.K. Macbeth, and F. L. Winzor: J. chem. Soc. London 1936. 1457Google Scholar
  173. 98.
    Dhéré, Ch.: C. R. Séances Soc. Biol. 119, 780 (1935).Google Scholar
  174. 99.
    Crowe, M. O’L.: J. biol. Chemistry 115, 479 (1936).Google Scholar
  175. 100.
    Supniewski, J. W., J. Hano et E. Taschner: Bull. internat. Acad. pol. Sci., Cracovie, Cl. Méd. 1936, 33.Google Scholar
  176. 101.
    Boissevain, C. H., W. F. Drea, and H.W. Schultz: Froc. Soc. exp. Biol. Med. 39, 481 (1938).Google Scholar
  177. 102.
    Rohner, F. u. F. Roulet: Biochem. Z. 300, 148 (1939).Google Scholar
  178. 103.
    Kuhn, R., Th. Wagner-Jauregg u. H. Kaltschmitt: Ber. dtsch. chem. Ges. 67, 1452 (1934).Google Scholar
  179. 104.
    Warburg, O. u. W. Christian: Biochem. Z. 266, 377 (1933).Google Scholar
  180. 105.
    Chargaff, E.: Zbl. Bakteriol., I. Abt., Orig. 119, 121 (1930).Google Scholar
  181. 106.
    Grundmann, C. u. Y. Takeda: Naturwiss. 25, 27 (1937).Google Scholar
  182. 107.
    Takeda, Y. u. T. Ohta. Z. physiol. Chem. 258, 6 (1939).Google Scholar
  183. 108.
    Long, E. R.: Amer. Rev. Tbc. 6, 642 (1922).Google Scholar
  184. 109.
    Model, L.: J. microbiol. Path. gén. Mal. infect. (Russ.) 5, 274 (1928).Google Scholar
  185. 110.
    Coghill, R. D. and O. D. Bird: J. biol. Chemistry 81, 115 (1929).Google Scholar
  186. 111.
    Umezu, M. u. Th. Wagner-Jauregg: Biochem. Z. 298, 115 (1938).Google Scholar
  187. 112.
    Anderson, R. J., R. E. Reeves, and F. H. Stodola: J, biol. Chemistry 121, 649 (1937).Google Scholar
  188. 113.
    — and E. Chargaff: J. biol. Chemistry 84, 703 (1929).Google Scholar
  189. 113a.
    Anderson, R. J:. J. biol. Chemistry 83, 505 (1929).Google Scholar
  190. 113b.
    Burt, M. L. and R.J. Anderson: J. biol. Chemistry 94, 451 (1931).Google Scholar
  191. 113c.
    Pangborn, M. C, E. Chargaff, and R.J. Anderson: J. biol. Chemistry 98, 43 (1932).Google Scholar
  192. 114.
    Behring, H. v.: Z. physiol. Chem. 192, 112 (1930).Google Scholar
  193. 115.
    Hecht, E.: Z. physiol. Chem. 231, 29, 297 (1935).Google Scholar
  194. 116.
    Anderson, R. J., R. Schoenheimer, J. A. Crowder u. F. H. Stodola: Z. physiol. Chem. 237, 40 (1935)Google Scholar
  195. 117.
    Sifferd, R. H. u. R. J. Anderson: Z. physiol. Chem. 239, 269 (1936).Google Scholar
  196. 118.
    Smith, E. F. and C. O. Townsend: Science (New York) 25, 671 (1907).Google Scholar
  197. 119.
    Boivin, A., M. Marbe, L. Mesrobeanu, et P. Juster: C. R. Acad. Sciences 201, 984 (1935);Google Scholar
  198. 119.
    Boivin, A., M. Marbe, L. Mesrobeanu, et P. Juster: Arch. roum. Path. expér. 10, 67 (1937).Google Scholar
  199. 120.
    Chargaff, E. and M. Levine: Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. Med. 34, 675 (1936).Google Scholar
  200. 121.
    — J. biol. Chemistry 124, 195 (1938).Google Scholar
  201. 122.
    Geiger, W. B. jr. and R. J. Anderson: J. biol. Chemistry 129, 519 (1939).Google Scholar
  202. 123.
    Rettger, L. F. and H. A. Cheplin: A treatise on the transformation of the intestinal flora with special reference to the implantation of bacillus acidophilus. New Haven, 1921.Google Scholar
  203. 124.
    Frost, W. D. and H. Hankinson: Lactobacillus acidophilus. An annotated bibliography to 1931. Wisconsin: Milton, 1931.Google Scholar
  204. 125.
    Crowder, J. A. and R.J. Anderson: J. biol. Chemistry 104, 399 (1934).Google Scholar
  205. 126.
    — J. biol. Chemistry 97, 393 (1932).Google Scholar
  206. 127.
    Juillard, P.: Bull. Soc. chim. France 13, 238 (1895).Google Scholar
  207. 128.
    Schreiner, O. and E. C. Shorey, J. Amer. chem. Soc. 30, 1599 (1908).Google Scholar
  208. 129.
    — and E. C. Lothrop: J. Amer. chem. Soc. 33, 1412 (1911).Google Scholar
  209. 130.
    Crowder, J. A. and R. J. Anderson: J. biol. Chemistry 104, 487 (1934).Google Scholar
  210. 131.
    Naegeli, C. u. O. Loew: J. prakt. Chem. 17, 403 (1878).Google Scholar
  211. 132.
    Gerard, E. et P. Darexy: J. Pharmac. Chim. 5–6, 275 (1897).Google Scholar
  212. 133.
    Hinsberg, O. u. E. Roos: Z. physiol. Chem. 38, 1 (1903);Google Scholar
  213. 133a.
    Hinsberg, O. u. E. Roos: Z. physiol. Chem. 42, 189 (1904).Google Scholar
  214. 134.
    Neville, A.: Biochemical J. 7, 341 (1913).Google Scholar
  215. 135.
    Maclean, I. S. and E.M. Thomas: Biochemical J. 14, 483 (1920).Google Scholar
  216. 136.
    Weichherz, J. u. R. Merlander: Biochem. Z. 239, 21 (1931).Google Scholar
  217. 137.
    Weiss, G.: Biochem. Z. 243, 269 (1932).Google Scholar
  218. 138.
    Newman, M.S. and R.J. Anderson: J. biol. Chemistry 102, 219 (1933).Google Scholar
  219. 139.
    Hoppe-Seyler, F.: Medizinisch-chemische Untersuchungen, Bd. 1, S. 142. Berlin, 1866;Google Scholar
  220. 139.
    Hoppe-Seyler, F.: Medizinisch-chemische Untersuchungen, Z. physiol. Chem. 3, 574 (1879).Google Scholar
  221. 140.
    Koch, W.: Z. physiol. Chem. 37, 161 (1902).Google Scholar
  222. 141.
    Austin, W. C.: Reprint from University of Chicago abstract of thesis. 1924.Google Scholar
  223. 142.
    Sedlmayer, T.: Z. ges. Brauwes. 26, 381 (1903).Google Scholar
  224. 143.
    Daubney, C. G. and I.S. Maclean: Biochemical J. 21, 373 (1927).Google Scholar
  225. 144.
    Newman, M.S. and R.J. Anderson: J. biol. Chemistry 102, 229 (1933).Google Scholar
  226. 145.
    Salisbury, L. F. and R.J. Anderson: J. biol. Chemistry 112, 541 (1936).Google Scholar
  227. 146.
    Levene, P.A. and I.P. Rolf: J. biol. Chemistry 72, 587 (1927).Google Scholar
  228. 147.
    Karrer, P. u. H. Salomon: Helv. chim. Acta 9, 3 (1926).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1939

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. J. Anderson
    • 1
  1. 1.New HavenUSA

Personalised recommendations