Realistic Reflections and Refractions on Graphics Hardware With Hybrid Rendering and Layered Environment Maps

  • Ziyad S. Hakura
  • John M. Snyder
Conference paper
Part of the Eurographics book series (EUROGRAPH)


We introduce hybrid rendering, a scheme that dynamically ray traces the local geometry of reflective and refractive objects, but approximates more distant geometry by hardware-supported environment maps (EMs). To limit computation, we use a greedy ray path shading model that prunes the binary ray tree generated by refractive objects to form just two ray paths. We also restrict ray queries to triangle vertices, but perform adaptive tessellation to shoot additional rays where neighboring ray paths differ sufficiently. By using layered, parameterized EMs that are inferred over a set of viewpoint samples to match ray traced imagery, we accurately handle parallax and view-dependent shading in the environment. We increase robustness of EMs by inferring them simultaneously across multiple viewpoints and including environmental geometry that is occluded from the viewpoint sample but is revealed in nearby viewpoints. We demonstrate realistic shiny and glass objects with a user-controlled viewpoint.


Lens Object Spherical Shell Graphic Hardware Distant Geometry Reflective Object 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    Bastos, R., Hoff, K., Wynn, W., and Lastra, A. Increased Photorealism for Interactive Architectural Walkthroughs. Interactive 3D Graphics 1999, pp.183–190.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Blinn, J. F., Newell, M. E. Texture and Reflection in Computer Generated Images. Comm. ACM, 19(10), Oct. 1976, pp.542–547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    Cabral, B., Olano, M., and Nemec, P. Reflection Space Image Based Rendering. SIGGRAPH 99, pp.165–170.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Chuang, Y., Zongker, D., Hindorff, J., Curless, B., Salesin, D., and Szeliski, R., Environment Matting Extensions: Towards Higher Accuracy and Real-Time Capture, SIGGRAPH 2000, pp.121–130.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    Diefenbach, P. J. Pipeline Rendering: Interaction and Realism through Hardware-based Multi-Pass Rendering. PhD thesis, University of Pennsylvania, June 1996.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    Gortler, S., Grzeszczuk, R., Szeliski, R., and Cohen, M. The Lumigraph. SIGGRAPH 96, pp.43-54.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    Hakura, Z., Lengyel, J., and Snyder, J. Parameterized Animation Compression. Eurographics Rendering Workshop 2000, pp.101–112.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    Hakura, Z., Snyder, J, and Lengyel, J. Parameterized Environment Maps. Interactive 3D Symposium 2001, March 2001, pp. 203–208.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    Hecht, E., Optics, Second Edition, Addison-Wesley, 1987.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    Heidrich, W., Lensch, H., Cohen, M. F., and Seidel, H. Light Field Techniques for Reflections and Refractions. Eurographics Rendering Workshop 1999, pp.195–375.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    Heidrich, W., Seidel, H. Realistic, Hardware-Accelerated Shading and Lighting. SIGGRAPH 99, pp.171-178.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    KAY, D., and Greenberg, D., Transparency for Computer Synthesized Images, Siggraph 1979.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    Kajiya, J., The Rendering Equation, SIGGRAPH’ 86, Aug. 1986, pp.143–150.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    Levoy, M., Hanrahan, P. Light Field Rendering. SIGGRAPH 96, pp.31-41.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    Linde, Y., Buzo, A., and Gray, R. M., An algorithm for Vector Quantizer Design, IEEE Transactions on Communication COM-28, 1980, pp. 84–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    Lischinski, D., Rappoport, A., Image-Based Rendering for Non-Diffuse Synthetic Scenes. Eurographics Rendering Workshop 1998, pp.301–314.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    Microsoft DirectX8.0, Scholar
  18. [18]
    Microsoft Xbox, Scholar
  19. [19]
    Miller, G., Rubin, S., and Ponceleon, D. Lazy Decompression of Surface Light Fields for Precomputed Global Illumination. Eurographics Rendering Workshop 1998, pp.281–292.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    Ofek, E., Rappoport, A. Interactive Reflections on Curved Objects. SIGGRAPH 98, pp.333-341.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    Pharr, M., Kolb, C., Gershbein, R., and Hanrahan, P., Rendering Complex Scenes with Memory-Coherence Ray Tracing, SIGGRAPH 97, pp.101-108.Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    Whitted, T. An Improved Illumination Model for Shaded Display. Communications of the ACM, 23(6), June 1980, pp.343–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    Wood, D. N., Azuma, D. I., Aldinger, K. Et Al. Surface Light Fields for 3D Photography. SIGGRAPH 2000, pp.287–296.Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    Zongker, D., Werner, D., Curless, B., and Salesin, D., Environment Matting and Composition, SIGGRAPH 99, pp.205–214.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ziyad S. Hakura
    • 1
  • John M. Snyder
    • 2
  1. 1.Stanford UniversityUSA
  2. 2.Microsoft ResearchUSA

Personalised recommendations