Advertisement

A Hypothesis on the Neural Basis of Consciousness

Considerations Based upon some Experimental
  • G. F. Rossi
Chapter

Abstract

My task in this Symposium is to report and discuss the findings and hypotheses of neurophysiologists on the possible mechanisms underlying the changes of consciousness. These findings and hypotheses may then be considered by other participants in this meeting and, perhaps, be utilized in the interpretation of the clinical material.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Araki, C., K. Sakataand M. Matsunaga, Recruiting response-like EEG changes induced with extrathalamic stimulation of cat. Acta Scholae med. Univ. Kioto 34 (1956), 100–122.Google Scholar
  2. Batini, C., F. Magni, M. Palestini, G. F. Rossiand A. Zanchetti, Neural mechanisms underlying the enduring EEG and behavioral activation in the midpontine pretrigeminal cat. Arch. ital. Biol. 97(1959), 13–25.Google Scholar
  3. Batini, C.,G. Moruzzi, M. Palestini, G. F. Rossiand Zanchetti, Effects of complete pontine transection on the sleep-wakefulness rythm: the midpontine pretrigeminal preparation. Arch. ital. Biol. 97 (1959), 1–12.Google Scholar
  4. Bremer, F., De quelques problèmes posés par la physiopathologie des altérations de la conscience. In: Jefferson, G., Les états de conscience en neurologie, pp. 49–66. Acta med. Belg. 1957.Google Scholar
  5. Candia, O., E. Favale, A. Giussaniand G. F. Rossi, Blood pressure during natural sleep and during sleep induced by electrical stimulation of the brain stem reticular formation. Arch. ital. Biol. 100 (1962), 216–233.Google Scholar
  6. Candia, O., K. Minobeand G. F. Rossi, Persistente insonnia da lesioni chirurgiche sperimentali del ponte. Boll. Soc. ital. biol. sper. 38 (1962), 1139–1141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Caspers, H., and K. Winkel, Die Beeinflussung der Großhirnrindenrhythmik durch Reizungen im Zwischen- und Mittelhirn bei der Ratte. Pflügers Arch. Physiol. 259 (1954), 334–356.Google Scholar
  8. Clark, S. L., and J.W. Ward, Electroencephalogram of different cortical regions of normal and anesthetized cats. J. Neurophysiol., Springfield, 8 (1945), 99–112.Google Scholar
  9. Cordeau, J. P., and M. Mania, Evidence for the existence of an electroencephalographic synchronisation mechanism originating in the lower brain stem. Electroencephalogr. 11 (1959), 551–564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Delafresnaye, J. P., Brain Mechanism and Consciousness. pp. XV-556, Blackwell, Oxford, 1954.Google Scholar
  11. Dement, W., The occurrence of low voltage fast, electroencephalogram patterns during behavioral sleep in the cat. Electroencephalogr. 10 (1958), 291–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Derbyshire, A. J., B. Rempel, A. Forbesand E. F. Lambert, The effects of anesthetics on action potentials in the cerebral cortex of the cat. Amer. J. Physiol. 116(1936), 577–596.Google Scholar
  13. Favale, E., A. Ginssaniand G. F. Rossi, Induction of sleep in cats by electrical stimulation of the brain stem reticular formation. Communicat. II. internat. Congr. Neurological Surgery, Washington, 1961.Google Scholar
  14. Favale, E., C. Loeb, G. F. Rossiand G. Sacco, EEG synchronization and behavioral signs of sleep following low frequency stimulation of the brain stem reticular formation. Arch. ital. Biol. 99 (1961), 1–22.Google Scholar
  15. Hara, T., E. Favale, G. F. Rossiand G. Sacco, Ricerche sull’attività eletrica cerebrale durante il sonno. Riv. neurol., Napoli, 30 (1960), 448–460.Google Scholar
  16. Hess, W. R., The diencephalic sleep centre. In: Delafresnaye, J. P., Brain mechanism and consciousness. pp. 117–136, Blackwell, Oxford, 1954.Google Scholar
  17. Hess, R., W. P. Koellaand K. Alert, Cortical and subcortical recordings in natural and artificially induced sleep in cats. Electroencephalogr. 5(1953), 75–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hubel, D. H., Electrocorticograms in cats during natural sleep. Arch. ital. Biol. 98 (1960), 171–181.Google Scholar
  19. Huttenlocher, P. R., Evoked and spontaneous activity in single units of medial brain stem during natural sleep and waking. J. Neurophysiol., Springfield, 24 (1961), 451–468.Google Scholar
  20. Jasper, H. H., L. D. Proctor, R. S. Knighton, W. C. Noshayand R. T. Costello, Reticular formation of the brain. pp. XIV-776, Little, Brown and Co., Boston, 1958.Google Scholar
  21. Jefferson, G., Les états de conscience en neurologie. Premier Congr. internat. Soc. neurol. Seconde journée commune. Rapports et discussions. Acta med. Belg. 1957, 237.Google Scholar
  22. Jouvet, M., Recherches sur les structures nerveuses et les mécanismesGoogle Scholar
  23. responsables des différentes phases du sommeil physiologique. Arch. ital. Biol. 100 (1962), 125 — 206.Google Scholar
  24. Jouvet, M., and F. Michel, Déclenchement de la «phase paradoxale» du sommeil par stimulation du tronc cérébral chez le chat intact et mésencéphalique chronique. Compt. rend. Soc. biol., Paris, 154 (1960), 636–641.Google Scholar
  25. Jouvet, M., F. Micheland J. Courjon, Sur un stade d’activité électrique cérébral rapide au cours du sommeil physiologique. Compt. rend. Soc. biol., Paris, 153 (1959), 1024–1028.Google Scholar
  26. Lindsley, D. B., Attention, consciousness, sleep and wakefulness. In: Field, J., H. W. Magoun and V. E. Hall, Neurophysiology, vol. III. Section 1 of Handbook of Physiology. pp. 1553–1539, Amer. Physiol. Soc., Washington, 1960.Google Scholar
  27. Lynes, T. E., A cortical recruiting response elicited by low-frequency stimulation of the mesencephalic reticular formation. Fed. Proc. 19 (1960), 293–293.Google Scholar
  28. Magnes, J., G. Moruzziand O. Pompeian, Synchronization of the EEG produced by low-frequency electrical stimulation of the region of the solitary tract. Arch. ital. Biol. 99 (1961), 33–67.Google Scholar
  29. Magoun, H. W., The waking brain. pp. 138, Thomas, Springfield, Ill., 1958.Google Scholar
  30. Minobe, K., O. Candiaand G. F. Rossi, Studio dei meccanismi del sonno nel gatto. Effetti elettroencefalografici di lesioni unilaterali del tronco dell’encefalo. Boll. Soc. ital. biol. sper. 38(1962), 1137–1139.Google Scholar
  31. Moruzzi, G., and H. W. Magoun, Brain stem reticular formation and activation of the EEG. Electroencephalogr. 1 (1949), 455–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Nakamura, T., Electrophysiological connections between mesencephalic central gray matter and cerebral cortex. Arch. jap. Chir. 28 (1959), 325–344.Google Scholar
  33. Nauta, W. J. H., Hippocampal projections and related neural pathways to the midbrain in the cat. Brain, London, 81 (1958), 319–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Oswald, I., Sleeping and waking. pp. IX-232, Amsterdam, New York, 1926.Google Scholar
  35. Pompeiano, O., and J. E. Swett, EEG and behavioral manifestations of sleep induced by cutaneous nerve stimulation in normal cats. Arch. ital. Biol. 100 (1962), 311–342.Google Scholar
  36. Pompeiano, O., and I.E. Swett, Identification of cutaneous and muscular afferent fibers producing EEG synchronization or arousal in normal cats. Arch. ital. Biol. 100 (1962), 343–380.Google Scholar
  37. Rheinberger, M. B., and H. H. Jasper, The electrical activity of the cerebral cortex in the un-anesthetized cat. Amer. J. Physiol. 119 (1937), 186–196.Google Scholar
  38. Rossi, G. F., Nuove considerazioni sui meccanismi fisiopatologici delle variazioni di coscienza. Minerva Neurochir. 6(1962), 129–141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Rossi, G. F., Sleep inducing mechanisms in the brain stem. Electroencephalogr., Suppl. 24 (1963), 113–132.Google Scholar
  40. Rossi, G. F., E. Fa-vale, T. Hara, A. Giussaniand G. Sacco, Researches on the nervous mechanisms underlying deep sleep in the cat. Arch. ital. Biol. 99 (1961), 270–292.Google Scholar
  41. Rossi, G. F., K. Minobeand O. Candia, An experimental study of the hypnogenic mechanisms of the brain stem. Arch ital. Biol. 101(1963), 470–492.Google Scholar
  42. Rossi, G. F., and A. Zanchetti, The brain stem reticular formation. Anatomy and physiology. Arch. ital. Biol. 35 (1957), 199–435.Google Scholar
  43. Russel Brain, W., Diseases of the nervous system. 5th edition, pp. XVIII-996, Oxford University Press, London, 1956.Google Scholar
  44. Wolstenholme, G. E. W., and M. O’Connor, The Nature of Sleep. A Ciba Foundation Symposium. pp. XII-416, Churchill, London, 1961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 1964

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. F. Rossi
    • 1
  1. 1.Clinica Neurochirurgicadell’Università di GenovaItalia

Personalised recommendations