Triassic Paleogeography of Southern Israel and the Sinai Peninsula
The Triassic sequence in Israel is represented by approximately 1000 m of sediments. This sequence was divided into five formations from the bottom as follows: the Zafir Formation of Scythian age, consisting of alternating shale, fossiliferous limestone and sandstone; the Ra’af Formation of Upper Scythian-Lower Anisian age, consisting mainly of fossiliferous limestones; the Gevanim Formation, of Anisian age, consisting of sandstone, siltstone and shale with minor amounts of limestone; the Saharonim Formation, of Upper Anisian-Carnian age, consisting of fossiliferous limestone, dolomite, marlstone and sparse gypsum and anhydrite layers; the Mohilla Formation of Carnian-Norian age, consisting of anhydrite and dolomite.
In southwestern and central Sinai the Triassic sequence is represented by a clastic sequence of continental origin (Budra Formation).
The paleogeography during the Triassic, over southern Israel and Sinai, was essentially controlled by transgressive and regressive cycles of the Tethys Sea situated north and northwest of the region.
During the Scythian times, regression resulted in deposition of fluvial sediments in southern Sinai, deltaic sediments in southern Israel and western Jordan and shallow marine sediments in the Central and Northern Negev.
During Late Scythian-Early Anisian time the influx of clastics from the Arabo-Nubian massif, situated in the south, was replaced by accumulation of shallow-water carbonates over large parts of northern Sinai and southern Israel. Later, regression led to the deposition of fluvial and deltaic sediments and a shift of the shoreline some 80 to 100 km northwards.
During the Late Anisian-Carnian a large scale transgression brought the shoreline to its southernmost Triassic extent.
The shallow marine sedimentation of this phase was replaced gradually by tidal and sabkha conditions. During the Late Triassic supratidal sabkhas and very shallow lagoons became dominant. This was accompanied by differential subsidence, evaporite accumulation taking place in the subsiding basins and supratidal dolomitization on the surrounding “highs”.
The Triassic ended with subareal exposure, slight erosion and development of lateritic soils.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Abdallah, A. M., El Adindani, A. and Fahny, N. (1965): Stratigraphy of the Lower Mesozoic Rocks, Western Side of Gulf of Suez, Geol. Survey and Mineral Research Department, Egypt, Paper No. 27, 23 p.Google Scholar
- Avnimelech, M. (1958): Triassic in the deep boring at Kfar Yeruham (Rekhme), Northern Negev, Israel Bull. Res. Counc. of Israel, vol. 7G, No. 4, pp. 173–175.Google Scholar
- Awad, G. H. (1946): On the Occurrence of Marine Triassic (Muschelkalk) Deposits in Sinai, Bull. Inst. Egypt, 27, pp. 397–427, pl. I-III.Google Scholar
- Bender, F. (1968): Geologie von Jordanien, in Beiträge zur regionalen Geologie der Erde, Gebrüder Boraträger, Stuttgart, v. 7, 230 p.Google Scholar
- Bentor, Y. K., Vroman, A. (1951): The Geological Map of the Negev, Avdat Sheet. Scale 1:100,000, with explanatory notes, Israel Defence Forces, HMD, Tel Aviv, p. 98.Google Scholar
- Blake, G. S. (1936): The stratigraphy of Palestine and its building stones. Government of Palestine Printing and Stationary Office.Google Scholar
- Brotzen, F. (1956): Stratigraphical studies on the Triassic vertebrate fossils from Wadi Raman Israel, Arkiv für Mineralogioch Geologi, Kungl. Svenska Vetenskapakad., vol. 2, No. 9, pp. 191–217.Google Scholar
- Brown, R. V., Gwin, J. W. and Nasr, S. N. (1941): Petroleum Development (Palestine) Limited Geological Report 169.Google Scholar
- Cox, L. R. (1924): A Triassic Fauna from the Jordan Valley, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 9, vol. 14, pp. 52–96, pls. I-II.Google Scholar
- — (1932): Further notes on the Trans-Jordan Trias, ibid., ser. 10, vol. 10, pp. 93–113, pl. VII.Google Scholar
- Druckman, Y. (1966): Triassic project: Institute for Petroleum Research and Geophysics (IPRG), Report No. 1018, p. 38–44.Google Scholar
- — (1967): Reference Section of the Ramon Group (Triassic) for the subsurface of the northern Negev, IPRG Rep. 1023, GSI Rep. OD/6/67, pp. 21-22.Google Scholar
- — (1969): The Petrography and Environment of Deposition of the Triassic Saharonim Formation and the Dolomite Member of the Mohilla Formation, in Makhtesh Ramon, Central Negev (Southern Israel). Geological Survey of Israel Bull., No. it49, 24 p.Google Scholar
- Druckman, Y., Hirsch, F. and Weissbrod, T. (in press): Stratigraphic correlation of Lower Triassic Formations from both sides of the Dead Sea Rift Valley.Google Scholar
- Dunay, R. E. (in preparation): Triassic Palynostratigraphy from Southern Israel.Google Scholar
- Gerry, E. (1966): Note on Triassic Ostracoda from outcrops and wells of Southern Israel, The Isr. Int. Petrol. Rep. 2/66.Google Scholar
- — (1967 a): Paleozoic and Triassic Ostracoda from outcrops and wells in Southern Israel. The Israel Inst. Petrol. Rep. 1/67.Google Scholar
- Gerry, E. and Oertli, H. J. (1967b): Bisulcocypris? triassica n. sp. (Crust., Ostrac.) from Israel. Bull. Centre Rech. Pau-SNPA, v. 1, no. 2, p. 375–381.Google Scholar
- Glickson, M. R. (1964): Palynological investigations in “Makhtesh Qatan 2”, Boring in the Negev, Israel: Israel J. Earth-Sci., 13, 1, p. 16–26.Google Scholar
- Goldberg, M. (1970): The lithostratigraphy of the Arad Group (Jurassic) in the Northern Negev. Ph. D. thesis Hebrew University (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
- Goldberg, M. and Friedman, G. M. (in preparation): Paleoenvironments and Paleogeography, Evolution of the Jurassic system in Southern Israel.Google Scholar
- Gwin, J. W. and Nasr, S. N. (1940): The Ramon Anticline, Petroleum Development (Palestine) Limited. Geological Report 155.Google Scholar
- Hirsch, F. (1972): Middle Triassic Conodonts from Israel, Southern France and Spain. Mitt. Ges. Geol. Bergbaustud., 21, Wien-Innsbruck.Google Scholar
- — (in press): Lower Triassic Conodonts from Southern Israel.Google Scholar
- Horowitz, A. (1970): Palynostratigraphy of the Upper Paleozoic-Lower Mesozoic Sequence in Zohar 8 borehole (Southern Israel): Geol. Surv. Israel Pal. Div. Report P1/70, p. 1-9.Google Scholar
- Huddle, J. W. (1970): Triassic conodonts from Israel. U. S. G. S. Prof. Paper, 700 B, p. B124–B130.Google Scholar
- Lerman, A. (1960): Triassic Pelecypods from Southern Israel and Sinai, Bull. Res. Counc. of Israel, vol. 9G, No. 1, pp. 1–51, 5 pls.Google Scholar
- Parnes, A. (1956): in: Zemel, M., Wirtzburger, U., Bartura, Y. (1956): Geological mapping of Har Arif. Geol. Surv. of Israel, unpublished report, 21. p.Google Scholar
- — (1962): Triassic Ammonites from Israel: Geological Survey of Israel Bull., No. 33, 76 p.Google Scholar
- — 1965, Notes on Middle Triassic Ammonites from Makhtesh Ramon (Southern Israel), Bull. Israel J. Earth-Sci., vol. 14, pp. 9–17.Google Scholar
- Sohn, I. G. (1966): Triassic Ostracodes from Makhtesh Ramon, Israel: Ph. D. thesis, Hebrew University, Jerusalem.Google Scholar
- Wagner, G. (1934): Deutscher Muschelkalk am Toten Meer. Natur u. Volk, v. 64, 2, p. 349–454. Frankfurt.Google Scholar
- Weissbrod, T. (1969): The Paleozoic of Israel and adjacent countries, Geol. Surv. Israel Bull. No. 47.Google Scholar
- Wetzel, R. and Morton, D. M. (1959): Contribution à la géologie de la Transjordanie, Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Notes et Memoirs Moyen-Orient, Paris, v. 7, p. 95–191.Google Scholar
- Zak, I. (1957): The Triassic in Makhtesh Ramon, unpublished M. Sc. thesis, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 98 p. (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
- — (1963): Remarks on the Stratigraphy and Tectonics of the Triassic of Makhtesh Ramon: Israel J. Earth-Sci., vol. 12, p. 87–89.Google Scholar