Advertisement

Precambrian Ore Deposits in the Nubian and the Arabian Shields and their Correlation across the Red Sea

  • A. Al Shanti
  • W. Frisch
  • W. Pohl
  • M. M. Abdel Tawab
Conference paper
Part of the Schriftenreihe der Erdwissenschaftlichen Kommissionen book series (ERDWISSENSCHAFT, volume 3)

Summary

A generalization is attempted of the present knowledge on Precambrian geology and mineralization in the northern Red Sea area:

The northern parts of the Nubian and the Arabian Shields have had a nearly identical Precambrian geological history; thick geosynclinal volcano-sedimentary sequences are intruded by pre-, syn-to post-tectonic magmatic rocks ranging from ultramafics to highly differentiated granites.

The Precambrian ore deposits may be classed into three main groups — 1. Zn-Cu-Pb-Ag-Au-Fe are derived from the early volcanic activities; 2. Cr-Cu-Ni-Co occur within mafic and ultramafic intrusives; while 3. Ta/Nb-Sn-W-Mo-F-Au are connected with late-to post-tectonic granitic intrusions.

Deposits belonging to the three listed metal associations occur on both sides of the Red Sea, and many of them are directly comparable. Because of this the authors consider them as part of one metallogenic province, which may be called “AraboNubian metallogenic province”.

The observation, that deposits of the plutonic, acidic affmity (group 3) are more important in the Nubian Shield and the Hijaz, while group 1 deposits predominate in the Najd and Asir areas of the Arabian Shield, leads to the definition of two metallogenic subprovinces. The western “Hijaz-Nubian metallogenic subprovince” is characterized by the Ta/Nb-Sn-W-Mo-F-Au metal association, whereas the eastern “Najd-Asir metallogenic subprovince” comprises more Zn-Cu-Pb-Ag-Au-Fe. Group 2 metals are about equally distributed in the whole area.

Zusammenfassung

Die vorliegende Arbeit stellt den Versuch einer Verallgemeinerung der derzeitigen Kenntnis von Geologie und Erzlagerstätten des Präkambriums im nördlichen Bereich des Roten Meeres dar.

Die nördlichen Teile des Nubischen und Arabischen Schildes hatten eine weitgehend vergleichbare präkambrische geologische Entwicklung: Mächtige geosynklinale vulkano-sedimentäre Folgen wurden durch prä-, syn-bis post-tektonische magmatische Gesteine intrudiert, die von Ultrabasiten bis zu hoch differenzierten Graniten variieren.

Die präkambrischen Erzlagerstätten können in drei Hauptgruppen eingeteilt werden — 1. Zn-Cu-Pb-Ag-Au-Fe wurden durch die frühen vulkanischen Aktivitäten gebracht; 2. Cr-Cu-Ni-Co kommen in basischen und ultrabasischen Intrusiven vor; während 3. Ta/Nb-Sn-W-Mo-F-Au mit spät-bis posttektonischen Graniten verbunden sind.

Lagerstätten, die diesen Metallassoziationen zugehören, gibt es sowohl im Osten wie auch im Westen des Roten Meeres; viele davon sind direkt vergleichbar. Aus diesem Grunde halten die Autoren alle diese Lagerstätten für Erscheinungen einer metallogenetischen Provinz, die „Arabo-Nubische Metallogenetische Provinz“ genannt wird.

Die Beobachtung, daß Lagerstätten der plutonischen, sauren Verwandtschaft (Gruppe 3) im Nubischen Schild und dem Hijaz-Gebiet wichtiger sind, wogegen Lagerstätten der Gruppe 1 in den Najd-und Asir-Gebieten des Arabischen Schildes vorherrschen, führt zur Definition zweier metallogenetischer Subprovinzen. Die westliche „Hijaz-Nubische Metallogenetische Subprovinz“ ist durch die Ta/Nb-SnW-Mo-F-Au Metallassoziation charakterisiert, während die östliche „Najd-Asir Metallogenetische Subprovinz“ mehr Zn-Cu-Pb-Ag-Au-Fe führt. Metalle der Gruppe 2 sind etwa gleichmäßig im betrachteten Gebiet vorhanden.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abdel Tawab, M. M.: Zinc-lead deposits in the Eastern Desert. Geol. Surv. Egypt Paper 61, 47–54, 1974.Google Scholar
  2. Amin, M. S.: Geological Features of some Mineral Deposits in Egypt. Bull. Inst. Desert d’Egypte 5, 209 240, 1955.Google Scholar
  3. Brown, G. F.: Tectonic map of the Arabian Peninsula, 1:4,000,000. Arabian Peninsula Series, Map AP-2, Dir. Gen. Min. Res., Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Jiddah, 1972.Google Scholar
  4. Bugrov, V. A. and I. M. Shalaby: First discovery of Ni-Cu sulfide mineralization in gabbro-peridotitic rocks in Eastern Desert of Egypt. Arm. Geol. Surv. Egypt 3, 177–183, 1973.Google Scholar
  5. Bugrov, V. A., A. A. EL Gadael and M. M. Soliman: Rare-metallic albitites as a new type of ore-mineralization in Egypt. Ann. Geol. Surv. Egypt 3, 185–205, 1973.Google Scholar
  6. Clifford, T. N.: The structural framework of Africa. 1 26 in: African Magmatism and Tectonics. Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh 1970Google Scholar
  7. Elramly, M. F., M. K. Akaad and D. M. Aifar: Cassiterite-wolframite mineralization near Gebel El-Mueilha (Eastern Desert of Egypt). Geol. Surv. Egypt paper 6, 18pp, 1959.Google Scholar
  8. Elramly, M. F., M. K. Akaad and A. H. Rasmy: Geology and structure of the Umm Nar iron ore deposit (Eastern Desert of Egypt). Geol. Surv. Egypt paper 28, 29pp, 1965.Google Scholar
  9. Elramly, M. F.: Geological Map of the Basement Rocks in the Eastern Desert of Egypt. 1: 1,000,000 Geol. Survey of Egypt and Mining Authority, Cairo 1972.Google Scholar
  10. Elshazly, E. M.: Classification of Egyptian Mineral Deposits. Egypt. Journ. Geol. 1, 1–20, 1957.Google Scholar
  11. Elshazly, Notes on the Mining Map of Egypt. Rpts., 20th Int. Geol. Congr. Mexico 1956; Ass. Afr. Geol. Surv., 423–437, 1959.Google Scholar
  12. Frisch, W. and Alshanti, A.: Ophiolite belts and the collision of island arcs in the Arabian Shield. — Tectonophysics 43, 293–306, 1977.Google Scholar
  13. Garson, M. S. and M. Krs: Geophysical and geological evidence of the relationship of Red Sea transverse tectonics to ancient fractures. Geol. Soc. America Bull. 87, 169–181, 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Garson, M. S. and Shalaby, I. M.: Precambrian-lower Paleozoic plate tectonics and metallogenesis in the Red Sea region. D. F. Strong (ed.): Metallogeny and Plate Tectonics: Geol. Ass. Canada Spec. Paper Nr. 14, 573–596, 1976.Google Scholar
  15. Gass, I. G. and Neary, C. R.: Granitic association of northeastern Sudan. Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull. 87, 1501–1512, 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gindy, A. R.: Toward a kinematic classification of the Egyptian Basement. Ann. Geol. Surv. Egypt 2, 47–77, 1972.Google Scholar
  17. Greenwood, W. R., Hadley, D. G. and Schmidt, D. L.: Generalized geologic map of the Arabian Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 1:4,000,000. — Dir. Gen. Min. Res., Jiddah, 1974Google Scholar
  18. Greenwood, W. R., Hadley, D. G., Anderson, R. E., Fleck, R. J. and Schmidt, D. L.: Late Proterozoic cratonization in southwestern Saudi Arabia. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, A 280, 517–527, London 1976.Google Scholar
  19. Hume, W. F.: The Minerals of Economic Value. Vol. II, part Iii of Geology of Egypt, Cairo 1937.Google Scholar
  20. Kennedy, W. Q.: The structural differentiation of Africa in the Pan-African (± 500 m. y.) tectonic episode. 8th Ann. Rep. Res. Inst. African Geol. Leeds, 48pp, 1964.Google Scholar
  21. Kochin, G. G.: The occurence of gold in the Eastern Desert of Egypt. 53–54 in: Studies on some Mineral Deposits of Egypt. Geol. Surv. Egypt 1970.Google Scholar
  22. Krs, M., A. A. H. Soliman and A. H. Amin: Geophysical phenomena over deep-seated tectonic zones in southern part of Eastern Desert of Egypt. Ann. Geol. Surv. Egypt 3, 125–137, 1973.Google Scholar
  23. Meneisy, M. Y.: On the Isotopic Dating of the Egyptian Basement Rocks. Ann. Geol. Surv. Egypt 2, 103–109, 1972.Google Scholar
  24. Moustafa, G. A. and M. E. Hilmy: Contribution to the geology and mineralogy of the Hammash copper deposits (South Eastern Desert of Egypt). Geol. Surv. Egypt paper 5, 14pp, 1958.Google Scholar
  25. Petrascheck, W. E.: Typical features of metallogenic provinces. Economic Geol. 60, 1620–1634, 1965.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Sabet, A. H. and V. Tsogoev: Problems of geological and economic evaluation of Tantalum deposits in Apogranites during stages of prospection and exploration. Ann. Geol. Surv. Egypt. 3, 87–107, 1973.Google Scholar
  27. Said, R.: The Geology of Egypt. Elsevier Publ. Co., New York 1962.Google Scholar
  28. Shalaby, I. M.: Zinc-Lead deposits in the Eastern Desert. Geol. Surv. Egypt paper 61, 47–54, 1974.Google Scholar
  29. Vandaalhoff, H.: Mineral locality map of the Arabian Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 1: 2,000,000. Geol. Map GM-15, Dir. Gen. Min.Res., Jiddah, 1974.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Al Shanti
    • 1
  • W. Frisch
    • 2
  • W. Pohl
    • 3
  • M. M. Abdel Tawab
    • 4
  1. 1.Institute for Applied GeologyJeddahSaudi Arabia
  2. 2.Geologisches Institut d. Universität WienWienÖsterreich
  3. 3.Institut f. Geologie u. LagerstättenlehreMontanuniversitätLeobenÖsterreich
  4. 4.Geological Survey of EgyptCairoEgypt

Personalised recommendations