The kidney is the most important organ for regulating the ion composition of the extracellular space [50, 51, 128]. Filtration of primary urine from the plasma takes place via the glomeruli. In the proximal tubule and the pars recta over 70% of the filtered salts and water are reabsorbed, while glucose, amino acids and bicarbonate are almost completely absorbed. In the loop of Henle further reabsorption of water and sodium chloride takes place and, at the transition to the pars convoluta, sodium chloride is again reabsorbed (Fig. 25). The reabsorption of sodium chloride, and indirectly of water, in the distal tubule is regulated by aldosterone.
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© Springer-Verlag Wien 1996