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Introduction

  • Wolf-Rüdiger Külpmann
  • Hans-Krister Stummvoll
  • Paul Lehmann
Chapter

Abstract

As clinical symptoms are rather unspecific, diagnostic indications of disorders of water or electrolyte balance are provided primarily by the serum and urine electrolyte values for sodium, chloride, potassium, magnesium, calcium, phosphate and by determination of osmolality.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wolf-Rüdiger Külpmann
    • 1
  • Hans-Krister Stummvoll
    • 2
  • Paul Lehmann
    • 3
  1. 1.Institut für Klinische Chemie IMedizinische Hochschule HannoverHannoverFederal Republic of Germany
  2. 2.Interne Abteilung mit Nephrologie, Krankenhaus der ElisabethinenLinzAustria
  3. 3.Boehringer Mannheim GmbHMannheimFederal Republic of Germany

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