Thermomagnetic Analysis — A Powerful Tool for Metal Physics
The low-field a. c. and d. c. susceptibility has been used for many years to determine magnetic phase-transitions as a function of temperature. The temperatures of these phase-transitions from the magnetically ordered to the paramagnetic state are the Curie temperature, the Neel temperature, and the spinglass freezing temperature for ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic and spinglass materials, respectively. Furthermore, the superconducting transition temperature is characterised by a transition from para- to diamagnetism, and can therefore also be determined very precisely. The theoretical background of the low-field (10−5 Oe < H < 100 Oe) d. c. and a. c. susceptibility, the so-called initial a. c. or d. c. susceptibility χa is, however, not really clear for a polycrystalline material, because of the variety of important parameters influencing χa.
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